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Friday, 25 March 2016

10th Class- Carbon and its Compounds Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-3

Class 10th Chapter - Carbon and Its Compounds

 Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

                                                          Carbon compounds show different chemical properties and some of them are study here-

1.    Combustion

Carbon burns in the presence of air (Oxygen i.e. O2) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), heat and light. This reaction is oxidation reaction.
Saturated hydrocarbon gives clean flame while unsaturated hydrocarbon give yellow flame with too much black smoke.
Example :-
C + O2 --------> CO2 + Heat + Light
CH4 + O2 ------> CO2 + H2O + Heat + Light
CH3CH2OH + O2 --------> CO2 + H2O + Heat + Light

2.    Oxidation

Removal of e- is called oxidation. Burning of fuel or carbon compounds is complete oxidation, but we can also see some incomplete oxidation in chemistry. Oxidizing agents have the ability to add the oxygen to other substances.
CH3CH2OH + {(Alkaline KmnO4 + Heat) or (Acidified K2Cr2O7 + Heat)} ---------> CH3COOH
Acidified Potassium Dichromate or Alkaline Potassium Permanganate is example of oxidizing agents.

3.    Addition Reaction

Addition reaction are the reactions in which hydrogen is added at double bond or triple bonds in unsaturated hydrocarbons in the presence of catalyst like Nickel, Palladium.
R2C=CR2 + H2 + Nickel Catalyst -------> R2CH-CHR2
Example:- Hydrogenation of vegetable oils with Nickel as a catalyst.

4.    Substitution reaction

                                       Substitution reactions are the reactions in which hydrogen atoms is replaced by other elements.
CH4 + Cl2 + Sun Light ------> CH3Cl + HCl

Some Important Carbon Compounds

Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

                                           Ethanol (C2H5OH) and Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) are very valuable carbon compounds.

Ethanol and its Properties:

                                      Ethanol (C2H5OH) is liquid at room temperature with M.P. 156K and B.P. 351K. Ethanol is present in all alcoholic drinks and soluble in water. Ethanol is good solvent so used in many medicines preparations.

Reactions of Ethanol

1.    Reaction with Sodium

When sodium is added to ethanol, it produces sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.
2Na + 2C2H5OH ------à 2C2H5O-Na+ (sodium ethoxide) + H2

2.    Reaction to produce unsaturated Hydrocarbon

When we heat ethanol at 443K in the presence of excess concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4) produces ethene due to dehydration of ethanol.
CH3CH2OH + Hot Conc. H2SO4 ------à CH2=CH2  + H2O
Conc. Sulphuric acid act as dehydrating agent as it removes water from ethanol.

Question – What is denatured alcohol?

 Answer – ethanol (Alcohol) is used on large scale in industries as solvent so to avoid any misuse of ethanol we add some poisonous substances (like methanol) in it and also add some dyes to provide blue color. This type of alcohol is known as denatured alcohol.

Question – Is alcohol used as Fuel?

Answer – yes, As alcohol (like Ethanol) on burning in sufficient air gives energy, CO2 and H2O

Ethanoic Acid and Its Properties

                                                Ethanoic acid is also known as acetic acid, it belongs to carboxylic acid (weak acids) group. Vinegar is prepared from 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water. Vinegar is used on large scale for the preparation of pickles (Achar). Chemical formula of ethanoic acid is CH3COOH.

Reaction of Ethanoic Acid

1.    Esterification Reaction

Ester is produced, when ethanoic acid get react with the absolute alcohol and acid catalyst is used to catalyse this reaction.
CH3COOH (ethanoic acid) + C2H5OH (ethanol) + acid catalyst --------> CH3COOC2H5 (ester)
Ester gives sweet smells and esters are used for many purposes like in making perfumes, flavoring agents etc.
On treating ester with sodium hydroxide solution (alkali) produces sodium salt of carboxylic acid and alcohol. This reaction is called as saponification reaction as this reaction is used in the preparation of soap.
CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH -----> CH3COONa + C2H5OH

2.    Reaction of Ethanoic Acid with Base

Ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide (base) to produce water and salt. Sodium  ethanoate also known as sodium acetate.
           CH3COOH + NaOH -----> H2O + CH3COONa

3.    Reaction of Ethanoic Acid with Carbonates

Ethanoic acid and carbonate reacts to produce carbon dioxide, water and salt. This salt is commonly known as sodium acetate.
2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 -------> CO2 + H2O + 2CH3COONa

4.    Reaction of Ethanoic Acid with Hydrogen Carbonates

Ethanoic acid and hydrogen carbonate reacts to produce carbon dioxide, water and salt. This salt is commonly known as sodium acetate.
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 -------> CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa

Soaps and Detergents


          Soap is used for cleaning purpose. As we know, most dirt contains oil, so this dirt does not easily remove and also do not easily dissolve in water.
Soap molecules are potassium or sodium salt of long chain of carboxylic acids. Ionic end of soap is hydrophilic so dissolve in water but long carbon chain is hydrophobic so dissolve in oil. In this way soap molecules form a structure, this structure is named as ‘micelles’.
To form micelle hydrophobic end attach to dirt ( or oil droplet) and hydrophilic end faces outside. This activity creates emulsion in water. These micelles make dirt (or oil droplets) to dissolve in water and at last wash out and as a result we get clothes clean.


Chemistry Lecture notes, Chemistry Videos, Chem                 Detergent is also used for cleaning purpose. Soaps are not very effective in hard water but detergents are very effective in hard water. Detergent molecules are sulphonate or ammonium salts of long chain of carboxylic acids.

Carbon and its Compounds Part 1

Carbon and its Compounds Part 2

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