Chemistry Podcast

Thursday, 18 December 2014

Transition state theory or Activated complex theory

Transition state theory or Activated complex theory

It is more modern theory proposed in 1932 by Pelzer & Manger later developed by Erying and colleagues.
1. Rate equation formation using the statistical mechanics to describe equilibrium between activated complex and reactant.
2. Rate equation formulation as per thermodynamical state function to describe transition state complex and reactant.
3. And rate equation 's statistical mechanical derivation.
Various postulates of Transition state theory or Activated complex theory are......
1. For any chemistry reaction to take place, it requires reactant have sufficient minimum energy. So it forms activated complex and reactant & complex are in equilibrium.
Reactant <~> [ activated complex ]
2. Activated complex have normal molecule with 4th degree of freedom along chemistry reaction coordinate.
3. And activated complex decompose along this 4th degree of freedom to yield products.
[Activated complex ] <~> Product
             Transition state theory or Activated complex theory postulates says...
Reactant <~> [activated complex] <~> Product
Rate of reaction = decomposition rate of activated complex
         rate of reaction = probability of crossing energy barriers * concentration of activated complex at top of energy barrier * frequency of crossing energy barrier

Transition Metals in Periodic Table

Transition Series of Periodic Table for 11th 12th BSc Msc Chemistry

         What is Transition Metals?

As per IUPAC system, transition metals are the elements of periodic table which have partially filled d sub shell or gives cations with incomplete d sub shell, is called transition metal.
But many scientist says simply any metal which come in d block of periodic table is known as Transition Metal and these come in group 3 to 12 of the periodic table.          

         What is Inner Transition Metals?

f block elements are also considered as transition metals but they are a special type of transition metal so they named as Inner Transition Metals.

         what is electronic structure of transition metals?

Typical electronic structure (or electronic configuration) of transition metals atom can be written as the  [Inert gas] (n-1)d1-10n s1-2.

         Define different transition series?

First (3d) transition series present in 4thperiod of the periodic table.

Second (4d) transition series present in 5thperiod of the periodic table.

Third (5d) transition series present in 6thperiod of the periodic table.

Fourth (6d) transition series present in 7thperiod of the periodic table.

Wednesday, 17 December 2014

Chemistry 11th & 12th Formula in pdf

11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF

Below is the list of Chemical Formulas Resources

1. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I

2. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part II

3. Chemistry Formulas for Structure of Atom Part 1

4. Chemistry Formula for Atomic Structure Part 2

5. Chemistry Formulas for Nuclear Chemistry (Radioactivity)

6. Chemistry Formulas for Chemical Bonding

To download Chemistry 11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF click on the download button below or just copy and paste the below link in your internet browser.

Download Chemistry PDF

This above link contain pdf of formulas of  classes 11th and 12th and also of B.Sc and M.Sc formula and symbols. Read our notes to get first class result. With our first class notes and your hard work, you create your signing future by get selected in IIT, PMT, PAT, AIMS, PET, NET, GATE and many more entrance exams........

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 MCQ

Below is the List of all Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds

like inorganic compounds, biomolecules, chemical formulas, elements, alchemical substances, biomolecules, compounds, minerals, organic compounds, polyatomic ions, chemical compounds, chemical substances, alloys, alkanes.

Tuesday, 16 December 2014

Explain the type of Bonding

Types of Bond Formation
To attain stable inert gas electronic configuration three types of bonds are formed, which are described here by chemistry notes info..........
1. Ionic bonding
2. Covalent bonding
3. Coordinate covalent bonding

Monday, 15 December 2014

What is Adsorption ?

What is Adsorption ?

Adsorption: - The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than bulk of solid or liquid is called Adsorption.

Mechanism of Adsorption

Inside the Adsorbent (in bulk) the force acting between the particles are mutually balanced but on the surface, the particles are not surrounded by atoms or molecules of their kind on all sides and hence they posses attraction force so particle stick on the surface of the Adsorbent.
The extent of adsorption increases with increase in surface area per unit mass of the adsorbent at a given temperature and pressure.

Heat of adsorption: - With increase in heat Adsorption process decreases.

Adsorption equilibrium: -

                                     As the molecules of the adsorb ate are held on the surface of the solid adsorbent.
Entropy decreases, i.e. DS is negative
For the process of adsorption to occur, DG must be negative which is possible only when, DS keeps on decreasing and TDS keeps on increasing till ultimately DH becomes equal.
To TDS so that DG = 0, this state is called adsorption equilibrium.

Types of adsorption

There are two types of adsorption

        i.            Physical Adsorption or physisorption: -  

                                                                         If accumulation of gas on the surface of solid occurs on account of weak vanderwalls forces is called physical Adsorption.

      ii.            Chemical Adsorption or chemosorption: - 

                                                                         When gas molecules or atoms are held to the surface (solid) by chemical bonds, the Adsorption is called Chemical Adsorption.

1)      Lack of specificity: - A given surface of an Adsorbent does not show any preference for a particular gas as the vanderwalls forces are universal.
2)      Nature of Adsorbate: - The amount of gas Adsorbed by a solid depends on the nature of the gas.
3)      Reversible nature: - Physisorption is reversible because adsorbate may be removed by decreasing pressure.
4)      Surface area of Adsorbent: - Physisorption increases with increase in surface area.
5)      Enthalpy of Adsorption: - Physical Adsorption is exothermic process but its enthalpy of adsorption is low (20-40 KJ mol-1).
1)      High specificity: - It is high specific because it occurs if there is some possibility of chemical bonding.
2)      Irreversibility: - As chemisorptions involve compound formation, so it is usually irreversible process.
3)      Temperature: - Chemisorptions increases with increase in temperature after saturation starts decreasing.
4)      Pressure: - it is also increases with increase in pressure.
5)      Surface area: - chemisorptions increases with increase in surface area.
6)      Enthalpy of Adsorption: - Enthalpy of chemisorptions is high (80-240 KJ mol-1) as it involves chemical bond formation.
                                 The variation in the amount of gas Adsorbed by the adsorbent with pressure at constant temperature can be expressed by means of a curve termed as Adsorption isotherm.

Sunday, 14 December 2014

Spin Multiplicity Rule

Definition of spin  Multiplicity Rule
According to spin Multiplicity Rule " transition between states of different multiplicity, S, are forbidden.
It is a selection rule for electronic transition in complexes. And another selection Rule is Laporte Selection Rule. 

Laporte Selection Rule

Definition of Laporte Selection Rule
According to Laporte Selection Rule " In a  molecule which has a  centre of symmetry, the transition between two symmetrical and unsymmetrical states are forbidden.  

Bent Rule

Definition of Bent Rule
As per bent Rule the more electronegative constituent prefer the hybrid orbitals having less s character & the more electropositive constituent prefer the hybrid orbitals having more s  character, is bent Rule.

Thursday, 4 December 2014

what is molarity ?

What is molarity? 

Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in litre.
Where mole is weight in gram devided by molecular weight.
Molarity is chemistry terminology.

Molarity (M) :- 

                                No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in litre.
    M = strength in gram per litre / Molar mass of the solute
Unit =>   M = Moles/L

Molarity Chemistry Infographics
What is Molarity


Tuesday, 2 December 2014


Debye Huckel Theory

This theory is based on 3 assumptions that how the ions act in the solution

1. in the solution electrolytes completely dissossiate into ions

2. electrolyte solution are very dilute of order of 0.01M

3. each ion surrounded by ion of the opposite charge on the average.

Friday, 7 November 2014

Project on Barcode

Project on Barcode

Project on Barcode

What is Barcode ?

Barcode is machine readable representation of information related to product to which it is attached.

Types of Barcode ?

Barcodes are of two types i.e. 1D and 2D

1.       One dimensional (1D) Barcode : 

                                                            It is also
known as linear barcode. Originally it is prepared by changing width and
space of parallel lines

Codabar, code 25, Code 11, Code 39, Code 93, Code 128, CPC Binary, DUN
14, EAN 2, EAN 5, EAN 8, EAN 13, Facing Identification Mark, GS1-128,
Intelligent Mail Barcode, ITF 14, JAN, KarTrak ACI, Latent image
barcode, MSI, Pharmacode, PLANET, Plessey, PostBar, POSTNET, Telepen

2.       Two dimensional (2D) Barcode : 

                                                            2D code is a
matrix code to represent information in two dimension. It
represent more information as compared to One dimensional (1D) Barcode.

Aztec Code, Data Matrix, EZcode, High capacity color barcode, MaxiCode,
NexCode, PDF417, Qode, QR code, ShotCode, SPARQCode etc.


What is Symbologies ?

Mapping between barcode and messages is known as symbology.

1D Symbologies :

                            It is also known as linear symbologies  which is read by laser.

2D Symbologies :

                           It is known as 2D Symbologies is read by digital camera.


What is Scanner or Barcode reader ?

or Barcode readers have the ability to decode barcodes to obtain
information from it. Like RS-232, Keyboard Interface Scanners, USB
Scanners and now days many mobile phone come with barcode scanner by
utilizing mobile camera and many apps support barcode scanning like
Google goggles,  mbarcode etc


Barcode Verifier Standards

For 1D or linear :

                              ISO/IEC 15416

For 2D :

                ISO/IEC 15426-2


What is Pharmacode ?

Pharmacode is also called as Pharmaceutical Binary Code. It is used in Pharma industry to control packing system.

Encoding of Pharmacode

contain a single value from 3 to 131070. Pharmacode can be read from
left to right or right to left. Narrow bar in pharmacode shows 2n and wide bar show 2*2n where n is bar position starting from 0 at right position.


What is Data Matrix ?

is two dimensional matrix barcode that contain black & white
modules or cells  arranged in square or rectangular pattern. Data Matrix
store text as well as numeric data. Some error correction codes are
used in data matrix to increase its reliability. Data Matrix have the
ability to store upto 2335 alpha-numeric characters.


What is QR Code ?

is Quick Response Code. QR Code become more popular due to its fast
readability and more storage capacity as compared to the standard UPC (
Universal Product Code ) barcodes.


What is GTIN ?

is Global Trade Item Number developed by GS1 for trade items. GTIN
number may be encoded in EAN 8, EAN 13, UPC A, UPC E and other barcodes
in GS1 system.
UPC = Universal Product Code
EAN = now  International Article Number originally European Article Number


What is ITF Barcode ?

Barcode is Interleaved Two of Five ( Interleaved 2 of 5 ) barcode
system. ITF is continuous two width barcode symbology for encoding

Monday, 12 May 2014

12 Class Chapter 15- Polymers

Polymer & Polymerization

Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene.
Addition Polymer: Polythene, Neoprene.

Polymer Classification

Polymer Classification on the basis of Source:

1.    Natural Polymer: Protein, Cellulose, Rubber.
2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer: Cellulose Derivatives as cellulose acetate (Rayon), Cellulose Nitrate.
3.    Synthetic Polymer: Plastic (Polyethene), Synthetic Fibers ( Nylon 6-6), Buna-S.

Polymer Classification on the basis of Structure:

1.    Linear Polymer: High Density Polythene, Polyvinyl Chloride.
2.    Branched Chain Polymer: Low Density Polythene.
3.     Cross Linked or Network Polymer: Bakelite, Melamine.

Polymer Classification on the basis of Molecular Forces:

1.    Elastomers: Weak intermolecular forces. eg.- Natural Rubber, Synthetic Rubber.
2.    Fibers: Strong intermolecular forces. eg.- Polyamides (Nylon6-6), Polyesters (Terylene).
3.    Thermoplastic: Polythene, Polystyrene.
4.    Thermosetting: Bakelite, Urea Formaldehyde Resins.

Lower Density Polyethene  (L.D.P.) : prepared at 1000-2000 atm pressure, 350-570 Kelvin Temperature and O2 peroxide inhibitor.

Higher Density Polyethene  (H.D.P.) : prepared at 6-7 atm pressure, 333-343 Kelvin Temperature and Zieglar Natta Catalyst.

Monomer Formula
1.    Teflon
Oil seals, Gasket
2.    Polyacrylonitrile

Commercial Fibers
3.    Terylene or Decron
Ethylene Glycol
Teryphthalic Acid

Commercial Fibers
4.    Nylon 6,6


5.    Nylon 6
Adipic Acid


Making Sheets, bristles of brushes, textile industry, tyre cords, fabrics, ropes etc.
6.    Phenol Formaldehyde Polymer
i.                   Novolac
Phenol + Formaldehyde
Used in paints
ii.                 Bakelite
Phenol + Formaldehyde

Comb, Electric switches
7.    Malamine Formaldehyde Polymer
Malamine + Formaldehyde

Unbreakable crockery
8.    Buna S
1,3-Butadiene + Styrene

Auto tyres, cables insulation, floor tiles


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