Chemistry Podcast

Thursday, 23 December 2021

Hydrogen Class 11 Notes

 Hydrogen Class 11th Chemistry Notes

Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table and is the lightest element. It exists as a diatomic molecule (H2) and is called dihydrogen. It has one proton and one electron and it has electronic configuration 1s1. This electronic configuration is responsible for dual nature of hydrogen i.e. hydrogen shows resemblance with alkali metals as well as halogens.

Resemblance of hydrogen with alkali metals

Like alkali metals –

·         Hydrogen exhibits electropositive character i.e. it has tendency to lose electron.

·         The normal valency of hydrogen is 1.

·         Hydrogen forms halides, oxides and sulphides.

·         Hydrogen acts as strong reducing agent.


Resemblance of hydrogen with halogens

Like halogens-

  • Hydrogen exhibits electronegative character by accepting one electron to complete its valance shell.
  • Hydrogen shows same order of ionisation energy (IE1) as that of halogens.  
  • Hydrogen (H2) is a gas in molecular state similar to F2 and Cl2.
  • Hydrogen shows -1 oxidation state in its compounds with more electropositive element.



As the hydrogen resembles both the alkali metals and the halogens and also differs from them. Also hydrogen exhibits some unique behavior therefore the position of hydrogen is uncertain and it is placed separately in periodic to table.


Hydrogen has three isotopes, protium (11H), deuterium (12H) and tritium (13H).

            i.            Protium or ordinary hydrogen (11H).

 It is the most abundant isotope of hydrogen (99.985%). Its nucleus has one proton and no neutron (mass no. = 1).

          ii.             Deuterium or heavy hydrogen (12H or D).

It is less abundant and is present in heavy water (D2O). Its nucleus has one proton and one neutron (mass no. = 2).

        iii.            Tritium (13H or T)

It is the rarest isotope of hydrogen and is radioactive in nature. Its nucleus has one proton and two neutrons (mass no. = 3).



Laboratory methods

1.      Action of dilute HCl or H2SO4 on granulated zinc.

Zn    +     2HCl          ZnCl2    +    H2  


2.      Action of dilute H2SO4 on magnesium ribbon.

Mg    +     H2SO4         MgSO4    +    H2  


3.      Action of water on sodium hydride.

NaH    +     H2O          NaOH    +    H2  


4.      By action of KOH of scrap aluminum or silicon. (Uyeno’s method)

2Al    +     2KOH    +     2H2O          2KAlO2    +    3H2  


Commercial method

1) From water gas (Bosch process)

Water gas (CO + H2) is mixed with the steam and the gaseous mixture is passed over heated catalytic mixture of ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) at 773K.

H2     +    CO    +    H2O      Fe2O3 + Cr2O3 (773K)     CO2   +   2H2

  Water gas         Steam

 2) From Steam (Lanes process)

When superheated steam is passed over iron filling heated to 1023 – 1073K hydrogen is formed.

3Fe  +   4H2O(steam)      (1023 – 1073)K  (Fe)   Fe2O4   +   4H2(g)  


3) Hydrocarbon steam process

Hydrogen is prepared by the action of steam of hydrocarbon at 1270K.

CH4   +   H2O       1270K     CO   +   3H2


4) By electrolysis of water

Electrolysis of acidified water using platinum electrodes gives dihydrogen. Here dihydrogen is librated at the cathode while dioxygen is librated at anode.



1) Dihydrogen reacts with halogens (X2) to give hydrogen halide (HX).

    H2   +   X2       2HX    ( X = F, Cl, Br, I )


2) Dihydrogen reacts with dioxygen to forms water. This reactions is highly exothermic.

    2H2   +   O2      catalyst or heating     2H2O . ΔH = -285.9 KJ.mol-1


3) With dinitrogen dihydrogen forms ammonia. This process is coiled Hober process of    

    manufacture of ammonia.         

    3H2   +   N2     673K, Fe catalyst, 200atm     2NH3


4) Dihydrogen combines with many metals at high temperature to yield the corresponding                             hydrides                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

   2Na  +  H2     2NaH    (sodium hydride)


5) It acts as reducing agent and thus reduces certain oxides of metals.

    ZnO   +   H2      Zn   +   H2O

    Fe2O4   +   4H2      3Fe   +   4H2O

6) Hydrogenation of vegetable oils using nickel as catalyst gives edible facts (margarine and Vanaspati ghee)

    Vegetable oil   +   H2      Finely divided Ni, 450K, 8-10atm    Solid fat



·         Dihydrogen is used in the preparation of ammonia by Haber’s process.

·         It is used in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils.

·         It is used for the manufacture of metal hydrides.

·         It is used as rocket fuel in space research.

·         Dihydrogen is used in fuel cell for generating electrical energy.

·         It is used in the atomic hydrogen torch and oxy hydrogen torches for cutting and welding.



The binary compounds of hydrogen with other elements are called hydrides. These hydrides have the formula EHx or EmHn (E = Element). These are classified into three types.

a) Ionic or saline hydrides

b) Covalent or molecular hydrides

c) Metallic or nonstoichiometric or interstitial hydrides


a) Ionic or saline hydrides

These are formed by the combination of hydrogen with metals which have low electro negativity values and are electropositive with respect to hydrogen. These includes elements of S block element. Ionic hydrides are prepared by the direct combination of metals.

e.g. LiH, KH, CaH2, MgH2 etc.


b) Covalent or molecular hydrides

These hydrides are formed by the combination of elements of comparatively higher electro –negativity as p-block element. The bonds formed are mostly covalent in character. Covalent hydrides are generally volatile.

e.g. H2O, CH4, NH3, HF etc.


c) Metallic or nonstoichiometric or interstitial hydrides

Metallic hydrides are formed by many d - block and f - block  elements. Elements of group 7, 8, 9 of d – block do not form hydrides and this is referred as hydride gap. Metallic hydrides are non – stoichiometric and show electric conductance. In these hydrides, hydrogen occupies interstices in the metal lattice producing distortion without any change in its type. Therefore, they are termed as interstitial hydrides.

e.g. SCH2, TiH2, VH, ZrH2



Water is essential to all forms of life. It is most common, abundant and easily obtainable of all chemical compounds. It is regarded as universal solvent. Water (H2O) is hydride of oxygen. In nature, water exist in three physical states, water (liquid), Ice (Solid) and water vapour (gas).


Structure of water

Water molecule is a bent molecule with bond angle of 104.5ᵒ and O-H bond length is 95.7pm.

Structure of water - Hydrogen class 11th chemistry notes for free download

Structure of Ice

Ice is the solid form of water. It has a highly ordered three dimensional hydrogen bonded structure. In ice each oxygen atom is surrounded tetrahedrally by four other hydrogen atoms at a distance of 276pm. The strength of hydrogen bonding in ice is more than liquid water. There is empty space in crystal of ice due to hydrogen bonding. This makes density of ice lower than liquid water, hence ice floats on water.

Structure of ice

Chemical properties of water

1) Dissociation of water

Water dissociates into its ion.

H2O   +    H2O             H3O+       +        OH-

                                 Hydronium ion


2) Amphoteric nature

Water has the ability to act as on acid as well as base. Such kind of behavior is known as amphoteric nature.

 H2O     +      NH3             OH-         +        NH4+

 H2O     +      HCl             H3O+       +        Cl-



3) Oxidizing and reducing nature

Water can act both as an oxidizing and reducing agent in its chemical reactions. With active metals water behaves as an oxidizing agent while with highly electronegative element, it acts as a reducing agent.

2Na    +    2H2O        2NaOH    +    H2

        Oxidizing agent

2F2    +    2H2O        4HF    +    O2

        Reducing agent


4) Formation of Hydrates

Water has strong ability to form compounds with some metal salts known as hydrates. This hydrates can be classified into three types:

i) Coordinated water


ii) Interstitial water


iii) Hydrogen – bonded water

[Cu(H2O)4]2+SO42-.H2O     in




Heavy water is deuterium oxide (D2O). It was discovered by Urey in 1932. The reaction of D2O are slightly slower than H2O. Ordinary water contains one part of heavy water in 6000 part of it. It is used as a moderator in nuclear reactors. It is used as tracer compound in determining the mechanism of many organic reactions.



Natural water contains dissolved salts. Depending upon its behavior towards soap solution, water may be classified as hard water and soft water.

a) Soft water : 

Water which produces lather with soap solution readily is called soft water. For example : distilled water, rain water, and demineralized  water.


b) Hard water : 

Water which does not produces lather with soap solution readily is called hard water. For example : sea water, river water, well water and tap water.

The hardness of water is due to the presence of the bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.


Isotopic varieties of water

Ordinary water contains 18 different kinds of water. Such as variety is possible due to the different isotopic forms of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen has three isotopes H(protium), D(Deutrium), T(tritium) and oxygen also has three isotopes 16O, 17O, 18O. These isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen combine to give 18 different kinds of water from which H2O is most abundant.




Hydrogen peroxide was discovered by Thenard in 1818. It is an important chemical used in pollution control treatment of domestic and industrial effluents.


Preparation of H2O2

1) In laboratory H2O2 is prepared by acidifying barium peroxide and removing excess water by evaporation under reduced pressure.

BaO2.8H2O   +   H2SO4       BaSO4   +    H2O2   +    8H2O


2) By the action of dilute acid on sodium peroxide (Merck’s method)

Na2O2   +   H2SO4       NaSO4   +    H2O2


3) By bubbling CO2 through a paste of BaO2

BaO2   +    H2O   +   CO2       BaCO3   +    H2O2


4) By the action of phosphoric acid on BaO2

3BaO2    +   2H3PO4       Ba3(PO4)2   +    3H2O2  


5) Industrially H2O2 is prepared by the auto – oxidation of 2 – Ethyl anthraquinol.

      2-ethyl anthraquinol     O2 (air) (H2/Pd   2-ethyl anthraquinol    +   H2O2


Structure of  H2O2

It is non–planar open book (Skew) structure. The bond length and bond angle are slightly different in gas and solid phase due to hydrogen bonding. Structure of  H2O2 HYDROGEN PROXIDE.


Chemical Properties of H2O2

1) It decomposes rapidly on heating in presence of finely divided metals, such as Ca, Fe, Cu, Au, Ag, Pt, MnO2, Carbon, dust, light, etc.

H2O2   +   H2O2        2H2O    +    O2   (ΔH = -196KJ)


2) It acts as an oxidizing as well as reducing agent in both acidic and alkaline or basic medium. Some example are given below

i) Oxidizing action in acidic medium

PbS   +   4H2O2        PbSO4   +   4H2O

ii) Reducing action in acidic medium

HOCl    +   H2O2        H3O+   +    Cl-    +   O2

iii) Oxidizing action in alkaline medium

Mn2+   +   H2O2      2Fe3+   +    2OH-

iv) Reducing action in alkaline medium

Cl2   +   H2O2   +    2OH-      2Cl-   +    2H2O    +    O2


3) Hydrogen peroxide acts as a bleaching agents due to the release of nascent oxygen.

H2O2          H2O     +     O


4) Hydrogen peroxide undergoes addition reaction with alkenes to form glycols.

Hydrogen peroxide undergoes addition reaction with alkenes to form glycols.

Uses of H2O2

·         It is widely used in environmental chemistry.

·         It is used as a antiseptic and is sold in the market as perhydrol.

·         It is used in daily life as a hair bleach and as mild disinfectant.

·         It is used as a bleaching agent and to manufacture chemicals like sodium perborate and percarbonate.


Social Media Links of ChemistryNotesInfo

Download PDF Notes from Telegram
Follow us at Facebook Page
Communicate at Facebook Group
Get Chemistry Infographics at Instagram
Chemistry Videos at YouTube
Chemistry News & Updates atTwitter
Latest Images at Pinterest
Chem Question and Answer at Quora
Financial Education at Sandhu Value Investing
Tech Education at Sandhu Tech Blog

Like Share and Comment below...

Sunday, 19 December 2021

Famous Scientists and their Inventions

Scientists and Their Important Research in the Field of Chemistry

chemist, chemistry, chemistry experiments, chemistry scientists, famous chemists, famous scientists, great scientists, list of scientists, names of scientists, scientific name, scientist names,
Given below is the list of scientists and their important research and inventions. These famous scientists or chemists perform many science and chemistry experiments which help in the development of Chemistry and Science. 

 List of Famous Scientists and their Inventions

List of Scientists
Research and Inventions
Ernest Rutherford
Bombardment of Atoms by alpha-particles
J. J. Thompson
Discovery of Electron, e/m of Electron
Eugen Goldstein
Discovery of Proton
James Chadwick
Discovery of Neutron
Louis De-Broglie
Wave Equation
Niels Henrik David Bohr
Atomic Model, Long Form of Periodic Table
Albert Einstein
Photoelectric Effect
Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Friedrich Hund
Distribution of electrons
Heisenberg Principle
Uncertainty Principle
Marie Curie
Francis William Aston
Mass Spectrograph
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
Periodic Law, Periodic Table
Sidwick and Powell
Theory of Hybridisation
Louis Allred and Eugene George Rochow
Robert Sanderson Mulliken
Robert Boyle
Boyle’s Law, Relation Between P and V
Jacques Alexandre César Charles
Charle’s Law, Relation Between T and V
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro
Avogadro’s Law, Relation Between V and number of molecules (n)
John Dalton
Dalton’s Law, Relation Between the Total Pressure and Partial Pressure of Individual Gases
Thomas Graham
Graham’s Law, Relation Between the Rate of Diffusion and Density (or Molecular Weight) of Gases
François Marie Raoult
Raoult’s Law, Relation Between Partial Vapour Pressure and Mole Fraction
Harold Clayton Urey
Heavy Water
Henry Louis Le Chatelier
Le Chatelier Principle, Effect of P, T and Concentration of Reactants on the System in Equilibrium

Top 10 famous Indian Scientists of India are as follows-
1. Salim Ali
2. S. Ramanujan
3. C.V. Raman
4. Homi J. Bhabha
5. Jagadish Chandra Bose
6. Satyendra N. Bose 
7. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
8. H.G. Khorana
9. S.S. Abhyankar
10. S. Chandrasekhar
Want to learn more about these Indian Scientists and their Inventions, click below link- 

Wednesday, 15 December 2021

इन्टरनेट से पेसे केसे कमाए ? How to earn money from internet ?

इन्टरनेट से पेसे केसे कमाए ? How to earn money from internet ?

Internet से पेसे कमाने के बहुत सारे तरीके हैं

में कुछ तरीके बता रहा हूं जिनका उपयोग करके आप इन्टरनेट से पेसे कमा सकते हैं I

  1. Website - आप internet पर अपनी वेबसाइट बना सकते हैं और इस वेबसाइट पर विज्ञापन दिखाकर पेसे कमा सकते हैं | उदाहरण के लिए मेरी वेबसाइट Chemistry Notes Info - Your Chemistry Tutor provide notes for 9,10,11,12, BSc, MSc, Chemistry Quiz चेक करके देख सकते हैं |
  2. Blogging - आप ब्लॉगिंग करके भी ऑनलाइन इन्टरनेट से पेसे कमा सकते हैं I उदाहरण के लिए मेरा ब्लॉग Sandhu Value Investing चेक कर सकते है I
  3. Youtube - आप अपने यूट्यूब चैनल पर रोज वीडियो अपलोड करके भी पेसे कमा सकते हैं I उदाहरण के लिए मेरा Youtube Channel देखे Sandhu Value Investing
  4. Referal Earning - आप लोगों को आपकी Referal link से समान खरीदवाकर commission के रूप मे पेसे कमा सकते हैं |
  5. Opening Upstox Demate Accounts - आप पहिले अपना Upstox पर खाता खोले | Upstox पर खाता खोलने के लिये नीचे दी गई लिंक का उपयोग करे I Open a Demat Account Online जब आपका खाता खुल जाए तब आप अपने दोस्तों का खाता खोलकर अपनी लिंक से पेसे कमा सकते हैं I 

Tuesday, 30 November 2021

Health Benefits of Drinking Tea 🍵

Health Benefits of Drinking Tea 🍵 

Drinking Tea has both good and bad effects depending upon consumption quantity. 
But today we take example of good ones. There are so many health benefits of drinking. Top 10 of the health benefits of drinking Tea 🍵 are shown in image below.
Subscribe us on Telegram to download pdf and other info -

Follow us on Instagram for more chemistry Facts and science Facts -

Monday, 21 June 2021

Learn Financial Education along with Chemistry at Sandhu Value Investing

 Learn Financial Education along with Chemistry at Sandhu Value Investing

Dear friends Chemistry Notes Info is a platform to learn chemistry. And on this website we share chemistry knowledge, chemistry notes, chemistry facts, science facts, chemistry videos, chemistry infographics and many more chemistry content.

Recently, we started a new platform i.e. Sandhu Value Investing to get financial education. On this platform you learn about value investing, financial freedom, passive income, how to make money online, financial markets i.e. share or stock market. You will also learn about stocks or companies fundamental and technical analysis.

Below are the important links for Sandhu Value Investing-

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Follow us on Instagram : Like us at Facebook : Subscribe YouTube : Visit Website :
Join Bot at Telegram Username @technicalfundamentalanalysisubot ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

अमीर बनने के 6 रहस्य। 6 Secrets to get Rich

Top 15 Passive Income ideas in India in Hindi

Top 10 Types of income Sources

Biggest Money Mistakes We Make in Our Life

30 Ways to make progress in life

Benjamin Graham Belief on Value Investing

for more videos visit YouTube Channel - "Sandhu Value Investing"

Warm Welcome to the Family of Value Investors.
Below are some important places to Learn Communicate & Grow. Happy Journey!!!

Learn Technical Analysis and Fundamental Analysis by SandhuValueInvesting for Stock & Crypto Market Traders and Investor

SANDHU VALUE INVESTING is a channel to learn about value investing, financial markets i.e. share or stock market. We will also learn about stocks or companies fundamental and technical analysis. We will not give tips or any type of suggestion to buy/sell

Crypto NFT Non Fungible Token. Buy NFT at cheapest price and SELL at High price to earn Big profits.

Don't just hold Grow your crypto with Binance investment plans 

I am gifting you Apple Stock. Join me on the INDmoney app using my link to claim today 

Opne account with indias biggest crypto exchange Wazirx to buy CryptoCurrency or Crypto Token

Invest and trade with Kite by Zerodha, India’s largest retail stockbroker. Open an account now.

Just open DMAT account at upstox to get profits upto ₹1200 

Our YouTube Channel to learn Technical Analysis and Fundamental Analysis of Stock Market, Crypto. Learn Value Investing to invest safely. Subscribe us at YouTube

Join Bot at Telegram Username @technicalfundamentalanalysisubot

Listen Value Investing and Financial Education Podcast


If error occur=> Change website url from to