## Symbol used in chemistry

d= density
v= volume
m= mass
Cp= specific heat
q= heat
ΔT= change in temperature
K= Kelvin
C= Celsius

## Formula used in chemistry

d=m/v
v=m/d
m=v*d
Cp= q/ (m* ΔT)
q= Cp*m*ΔT
ΔT= q/Cp*m
m= q/Cp* ΔT
Tf= q/m*Cp +Ti
Ti= q/m*Cp +Tf (then divide everything on the right by negative 1 [-1]) **this formula isn't used as often as Tf**
t(C°)= T(K) - 273.15K  --used to find Celsius
T(K)= t(°C) + 273.1°C -- used to find Kelvin

### Atoms and Moles

Section 1 Substances are Made of Atoms

## I. Atomic Theory

-As early as 400 B.C., an atomic theory existed that stated that atoms are the building blocks of all matter
-Democritus was the first scientist who believed in atoms (Greek)
-It wasn't until the 1800s that atomic theory was revised based on scientific observations
A. Law of Definite Proportion
-Two samples of a given compound are made of the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the sizes or sources of the samples.
-Every molecule of the same type is made of the same number and types of atoms
-Example: Table Salt (Sodium Chloride)
-consists of two elements in the following proportions by mass:
-60.66% Chlorine
-39.34% Sodium
-Every sample of table salt has these same proportions
B. Law of Conservation of Mass
-The mass of the reactants in a reaction equals the mass of the products
-Mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
C. Law of Multiple Proportions
-If tow or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, the ratio of the masses of the second element (which combines with a given mass at the first element) is always a ratio of small whole numbers.

## II. Dalton's Atomic Theory

- Dalton revised the early Greek idea atomic theory in the 1800s into a scientific theory that could be tested by experiments
-Has five important principals
-Believed that elements are composed of only one kind of matter and compounds are made of two or more kinds
-Part of his theory that was incorrect is the fact that like atoms can combine with like atoms (such as O2)
-Did not include the fact that atoms are made up of even smaller particles

Dalton's Theory Contains Five Principles
1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms, which cannot be subdivide, created, or destroyed
2. Atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties
3. Atoms of different elements differ in their physical and chemical properties
4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged but never created, destroyed, or changed
Section 2: Structure of Atoms
I. Subatomic Particles
A. Electrons- negative charge
B. Nucleus- an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
1. Protons- positive charge. Number of protons is atomic number.
2. Neutrons- no charge.
II. Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
Elements differ from each other in the number of protons their atoms contain
-Atomic Number- the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
-Atomic numbers are always whole numbers
-Atomic number also reveals the number of electrons in an atom of an element because for an atom to be neutral, electrons must equal protons
Mass Number is the Number of Particles in the Nucleus
-Mass number- the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an atom
Example:
mass number- atomic number= number of neutrons
In this example, the neon atom has 10 neutrons
number of protons and neutrons (mass number)= 20
- number of protons (atomic number)= 10
number of neutrons= 10
-Mass as a number can vary among atoms of a single element
- All atoms of an element have the same number of protons but can have different numbers of neutrons
Example 2: Determining the Number of Particles in an Atom
How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are present in an atom of copper whose atomic number is 29 and whose mass number is 64?
1. Gather info
-The atomic number of copper is 29
- The mass number of copper is 64
protons= 29                                        64
electrons= 29                                   -29
35 neutrons
- Different elements can have the same mass number
- Knowing just the mass number does not help identify the element
Ex: Some copper atom nuclei have 36 neutrons (therefore mass number = 65) Zinc atoms have 30 protons and 35 neutrons
- Isotopes of an Element Have the Same Atomic Number
- Isotope- an atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as other atoms of the same element has a different number of neutrons (atomic mass)
- There are two standard methods of identifying isotopes
- Write the mass number with a hyphen after the name of an element (called hyphen notation; ex. Bromine- 80)
- Shows the composition of a  nucleus as the isotope's nuclear symbol
- Nucleic Notation
Ex. 126C        C= element symbol
12= mass number
6= atomic number
Chapter 3
Section 3: Electron Configuration
I. Atomic Models
-After the atomic theory was widely accepted by scientists, models of atoms were constructed.
-Building a model helps scientists imagine what may be happening at the microscopic level
-Models have limitations
-Models are modified or discarded as new information is found
A. Rutherford's Model Proposed Electron Orbits
•  From section 2 J.J. Thomson proposed that the electrons of an atom were embedded in a positively charged ball of matter
• Named the plum-pudding model because it resembled English plum pudding, a dessert consisting of a ball of cake with pieces of fruit in it
• In 190, Rutherford performed experiments that disproved Thomson's model.
• Rutherford envisioned the electrons outside the nucleus orbiting like planets orbiting the sun
• Because opposite charges attract, the negatively charged electrons should be pulled into the positively charged nucleus
B. Bohr's Model Confines Electrons to Energy Level
•  Rutherford model was replaced two years later by a model developed by Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist
• According to the Bohr model, electrons can be only certain distances from the nucleus
• Each distance from the nucleus quantity of energy that an electron can have
• The distance in energy between two energy levels is known as a quantum of energy
C. Electrons Act Like Both Particles and Waves
•  Thomson's experiments demonstarted that electrons act like particles that have mass

II. Electrons and Light
•  By 1900, scientists knew that light could be thought of as moving waves that have given frequencies, speed, and wavelengths
• Wavelength- the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs of a wave
• units- meters
• wavelength of light- 105 to less than 10-10 m
• Electromagnetic Spectrum- all the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
• Einstein proposed that light has the properties of both waves and particles
• Light can be described as a stream of particle, the energy of which is determined by the light's frequency
A. Light is an Electromagnetic Wave
•  When passed through a glass prism, sunlight produces the visible spectrum--all the colors of light that a human can see
B. Light Emission
•  When a high-voltage current is passed through a tube of hydrogen gas, lavender-colored light is seen
• When this light is only made up of a few colors called LINE-EMISSION SPECTRUM
• Each element has a line-emission spectrum that is made of a different pattern of colors
C. Light Provides Info About Electrons
•  Ground state- lowest energy state of a quantized system
• Excited state- state in which an atom has more energy than it does as its ground state
• If an electron gains energy, it moves from ground state to excited state
Chapter 3: Section 3

## III. Quantum Numbers

•  Quantum model- present-day model of the atom in which electrons are located in orbitals
- Electrons within an energy level are located in orbitals (regions of high probability for findings particular electron)
• To define the region in which electrons can be found, scientists have assigned four QUANTUM NUMBERS
• Quantum Number- a number that specifies the properties of electrons
-principal quantum number (n)
-angular momentum quantum number (l)
-magnetic quantum number (m)
-spin quantum number (+  ½ or -  ½) ( ↑ or ↓)
•  Principal Quantum Number (n) - indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
-values are positive integers such as 1, 2, 3,and 4
-As n increases, the electron's distance from the nucleus and the electron's energy increases
•  Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)- indicates the shape or type of orbital that corresponds to a particular sublevel.
• Chemists use a letter code for this Number
l=  0 corresponds to an s orbital
l= 1 to a p orbital
l= 2 to a d orbital
l= 3 to an f orbital
•  Magnetic Quantum Number (m)- indicates the numbers and orientations of the orbitals around the nucleus
• The  value of m takes whole-number values, depending on the value of l
• The number of orbitals includes on s orbital, 3 p orbitals, 5 d orbitals, and seven f orbitals
• Spin Quantum Number (symbolized by +  ½ or -  ½ and by  ↑ or ↓) - indicates the orientation of an electron's magnetic field
• A single orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, which must have opposite spins
A. An Electron Occupies the Lowest Energy Level Available
•  Pauli Exclusion Principle helps you to write an electron configuration for an atom
• Aufbau Principle- electrons fill orbitals that have the lowest energy first
B. An Electron Configuration is a Shorthand Notation
•  The arrangement of the electrons can be shown by the nucleus's electron configuration
• Sulfur has sixteen electrons:
1s2 2s22p6 3s2 3p4
Section 4: Counting Atoms

## I. Atomic Mass

- Atoms are so mall that the gram is not a very convenient unit for expressing their masses
-  Atomic Mass- the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units (amu)

## II.Introduction to the Mole

- Mole- number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. It is the SI unit for the amount of a substance (
- Molar Mass- the mass in grams of one mole of a substance (g/mol)
- Avogadro's number- 6.022  x1023 The number of atoms or molecules in 1 mol.
3.50 mol Cu x 63.55 x  g Cu
1 mol Cu

3.50  mol Cu x 63.55 x 1023 g Cu = 222 g Cu
1 mol Cu

## II. Intro to the Mole

A. Chemists and Physicists agree on a Standard
•  In 1960, a standard was set based on an isotope of carbon
• Defines atomic mass unit (amu) as one twelfth of the mass of one carbon-12 atom
• One amu= 1.6005402 x  10-27 kg

### Some Notes & Terms to remember about Chemistry

Section 1 of Chemistry Notes Info.
1. Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter
• Chemical- any substance that has defined composition
• Everything you see is made up of chemicals
• Even things you cannot see are made up of chemicals
• Some exist naturally
• Some are manufactured
• Chemical Reaction- the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances

1. Physical States of Matter
• Type and arrangement of particles in a sample of matter determine the properties of the matter
• Most matter is one of the three states of matter

A. Properties of the Physical State
Solids- fixed volume and shape
Rigid structure
Liquids- fixed volume and variable shape
Takes shape of container
Gases- neither fixed volume or shape
Particles move independently
Will fill any container they occupy
1. Changes of Matter
Many changes of matter happen. Changes occur in two different ways:
1.
• Physical Changes
• Chemical Changes

A. Physical Change
Changes in which the identity of a substance doesn’t change
-Changes state
-Dissolving
-Crushing
B. Chemical Changes
Identifies of substances change and new substances form.
Mercury (II) oxide mercury + oxygen

Reactants Products
-Substance or molecule that -Substance that forms in a chemical
participates in a chemical reaction reaction

Atoms are not destroyed or created, so mass does not change during a chemical reaction.

C. Evidence of Chemical Change
Generally, evidence that a chemical change may be happening falls into one of four categories; you may observe more than one.
1. Evolution of a gas- the production of a gas is often observed by bubbling or by a change in color
2. Formation of a Precipitate- when two clear solutions are mixed and become cloudy, a solid precipitate has formed
3. Release or Absorption of Energy- change in temperature of the giving off of light energy are signs of energy transfer
4. Color Change in the Reaction System- look for a different color when two chemicals react

Section 2 of Chemistry Notes Info.
I. Density
Matter has Mass & Volume
1. Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space
2. The space an object occupies is its volume
1. Volume—a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
2. The method used to determine volume depends on the nature of the matter being examined
3. Quantity of Matter is Mass
1. Mass- a measure of the amount of matter in an object. It is not affected by the gravitational force
2. Balances measure mass usually in grams
3. It is the same no matter where it is in the universe
4. Mass is NOT Weight
1. Weight- the force produced by gravity action on mass
2. Its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
3. Measured in Newtons
II. Units of Measurement
1. Mass & volume are properties that can be described in terms of numbers
1. Numbers alone aren’t enough because their meaning might be unclear
2. Units of measurement are needed with the numbers
Quantity- something that has magnitude, size, or amount
Unit- a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement
1. System Internationale d’Units
1. Seven base units
2. Base units can be modified by attaching prefixes
2. Derived Units
1. Many quantities you can measure need units other than the seven basic SI Units
2. These units are derived by multiplying or dividing the base units
1. Properties of Matter
Properties of substances may be classified as physical or chemical

Physical Properties
1. Characteristic of a substance that doesn’t involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
2. Chemical Properties
1. A property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions
2. Examples: reactivity with oxygen, sensitivity to light, exposure to heat
3. Density
1. Density- the ratio of mass to volume of a substance. Often expressed in grams/cm3 for solids and liquids and g/L for gases
Density= mass/volume or D=m/v

Section 3 of Chemistry Notes Info.
1. Classifying Matter
-From the last section:
-Matter-anything that has mass and takes up space
-All matter is composed of Atoms
-Atom- the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Because matter exists in so many different forms, having a way to classify it is important for study.
It helps you to predict what characteristics a sample will have based on what you know about others like it.

Pure Substances- a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound that has definite chemical and physical properties
Element- a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number

There are two types of pure substances:
1.
1.
• Elements
• Compounds
1. Elements- are pure substances that contain only one kind of atom
1. Has its own unique set of physical and chemical properties
2. Has its own chemical symbol
3. Molecule- the smallest of a unit of substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties that of the substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
4. Diatomic elements- two of the same atom bonded together chemically
1. Pure Substances
-Some elements have more than one form
-Allotrope- one of a number of different molecular forms of an element
-Compounds are Pure Substances
Compound- a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

## Chemistry Terms at Chemistry Notes Info

Chemical-any substance that has a defined composition
Chemical reaction- the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
States of matter-the physical forms of matters, which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
Reactant- a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
Product- a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
Matter-anything that has mass and takes up space
Volume-a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
Mass-a measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as the gravitational force
Weight- a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
Quantity- something that has magnitude, size, or amount
Unit- a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement
Conversion Factor- a ration that is derived form the equality of two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
Physical property- a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
Density –the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; often expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases
Chemical Property- a property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions
Atom- the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Pure Substance- a sample of matter, either a single element or compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
Element- a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means’ all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
Molecule- the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Compound- a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Mixture- a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
Homogeneous- describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout
Heterogeneous- composed of dissimilar components

## NOTE:

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