Chemistry Podcast

Showing posts with label Science Facts. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science Facts. Show all posts

Saturday, 29 April 2023

The Future is Now: How Lithium-ion Batteries are Revolutionizing Energy Storage

The Future is Now: How Lithium-ion Batteries are Revolutionising Energy Storage

Lithium-ion batteries are changing the way we use and store energy. They are lighter, more powerful, and longer-lasting than traditional batteries, and they are revolutionizing everything from electric vehicles to renewable energy storage. But what makes these batteries so special, and what does the future hold for this game-changing technology?

First, let's take a closer look at how lithium-ion batteries work. At their core, these batteries consist of two electrodes – one positive and one negative – separated by an electrolyte. When the battery is charged, lithium ions move from the positive electrode through the electrolyte and to the negative electrode, where they are stored. When the battery is discharged, those ions flow back to the positive electrode, releasing energy along the way.

What sets lithium-ion batteries apart is their use of a variety of materials that are both efficient and reliable. For instance, the negative electrode is typically made of graphite, while the positive electrode can be made of a range of materials, including cobalt, nickel, and manganese. Meanwhile, the electrolyte can be made of various substances, such as lithium cobalt oxide or lithium iron phosphate.

One key advantage of lithium-ion batteries is their high energy density, which means they can store a lot of energy in a relatively small space. This makes them ideal for use in portable electronics, such as smartphones and laptops, where space is at a premium. Additionally, their high energy density makes them a great fit for electric vehicles, where a lightweight, long-lasting battery is essential.

Another advantage of lithium-ion batteries is their long lifespan. Compared to traditional batteries, which typically degrade after just a few hundred cycles, lithium-ion batteries can last for thousands of cycles, making them a much more sustainable and cost-effective option over the long term.

Of course, there are still some challenges that need to be overcome when it comes to lithium-ion batteries. One major issue is the risk of overheating and even exploding, which has led to high-profile recalls of certain batteries in the past. However, advancements in battery management systems and the use of new materials are helping to mitigate these risks and improve the safety of these batteries.

Looking to the future, the potential applications of lithium-ion batteries are nearly endless. In addition to powering electric vehicles and portable electronics, they are also being used for grid-scale energy storage, making it possible to store renewable energy from sources like wind and solar and use it when it's needed. And as researchers continue to develop new materials and improve the design of these batteries, we can expect to see even more exciting developments in the years to come.

Overall, lithium-ion batteries are a game-changing technology that is helping to power our modern world. With their high energy density, long lifespan, and versatility, they are poised to play an even bigger role in the years to come. As we continue to develop and refine this technology, the potential benefits for both individuals and society as a whole are truly limitless.

Friday, 28 April 2023

Hydrogen: The Fuel of the Future

 Hydrogen: The Fuel of the Future

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass. It is found in water, organic matter, and fossil fuels. Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel that produces only water when it is burned. This makes it an attractive alternative to fossil fuels, which produce harmful emissions when they are burned.

Hydrogen has been used as a fuel for many years. It is used in fuel cells to produce electricity, in the production of ammonia for fertilizers, and in the refining of crude oil. However, the use of hydrogen as a fuel has been limited due to the high cost of producing and storing it.

The production of hydrogen can be done through several methods. The most common method is steam methane reforming, where natural gas is reacted with steam to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Another method is electrolysis, where water is split into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. Both methods require energy input, which can come from renewable sources such as solar or wind power.

One of the biggest challenges facing the use of hydrogen as a fuel is its storage. Hydrogen has a low density and must be compressed or liquefied to be stored. This requires expensive equipment and can result in safety concerns. However, research is being done to develop new methods of storage, such as using metal hydrides or carbon nanotubes.

Despite these challenges, there are many benefits to using hydrogen as a fuel. One of the biggest benefits is its environmental impact. Hydrogen produces no greenhouse gas emissions when it is burned, making it a clean-burning fuel. This can help reduce air pollution and combat climate change.

Another benefit of hydrogen is its versatility. It can be used in a variety of applications, from powering vehicles to heating homes. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have been developed by companies such as Toyota and Honda. These vehicles use fuel cells to convert hydrogen into electricity, which powers an electric motor. They have a longer range than traditional electric vehicles and can be refueled in minutes, making them more practical for long-distance travel.

Hydrogen can also be used to power homes and businesses. Fuel cells can be installed in buildings to generate electricity and heat. This can reduce reliance on the electrical grid and provide a more reliable source of power.

The use of hydrogen as a fuel has the potential to create new industries and jobs. It can help spur the development of new technologies and infrastructure. This can lead to economic growth and increased energy security.

However, there are still challenges that must be overcome before hydrogen can become a widely used fuel. One of the biggest challenges is the cost of production. The current methods of producing hydrogen are expensive and require a lot of energy. This makes it difficult to compete with fossil fuels, which are cheaper and more widely available.

Another challenge is the lack of infrastructure for storing and transporting hydrogen. There are currently only a few hydrogen refueling stations in the world, making it difficult for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to be used on a large scale. More infrastructure will need to be developed to support the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel.

Despite these challenges, the future looks bright for hydrogen as a fuel. Research is being done to develop new methods of production and storage, and governments around the world are investing in the development of hydrogen infrastructure. The use of hydrogen as a fuel has the potential to transform the energy landscape and create a cleaner, more sustainable future.

Sunday, 19 March 2023

Interesting Chemistry Facts

Interesting Chemistry Facts

"Did you know that the compound responsible for the spicy kick in chili peppers is called capsaicin? Not only does it make your mouth burn, but it also has potential health benefits like reducing inflammation and pain. #ChemistryFacts #SpicyScience 🌶️🔬"

Hello Chemistry Lovers!!!

                Here are the some interesting chemistry facts which make your day...

  1. Water is the only substance on earth that can exist naturally in all three states: solid, liquid, and gas. 

  2. At room temperature and pressure, some metals like gold and copper are so soft that they can be cut with a knife. 

  3. A diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance known, but it is not the strongest. In fact, it is quite brittle and can be shattered easily. 

  4. Carbon, the element that forms the basis of all known life on Earth, has an incredible ability to bond with other elements. This makes it a versatile building block for molecules of all shapes and sizes.

  5. The periodic table of elements, which arranges all known elements by their atomic structure and chemical properties, was first published by Russian Scientist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869.

  6. The human body contains a range of chemical elements, including carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and iron. In fact, about 99% of the human body is made up of just six elements.

  7. Chemical reactions can be exothermic (releasing heat) or endothermic (absorbing heat). For example, the combustion of gasoline in a car engine is exothermic, while the process of melting ice is endothermic.

  8. Many common elements have fascinating properties. For instance, mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature, while bromine is a liquid that evaporates to form a red gas.

  9. Chemical reactions are essential for life. They allow us to break down food and other molecules for energy, create new molecules for growth and repair, and perform countless other vital functions.

  10. Chemical elements and compounds can have a wide range of practical applications, from providing fuel and energy to creating materials for construction and manufacturing. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to season food, but it is also an important ingredient in the production of chemicals, paper, and textiles. 

  11. There are more possible iterations of a game of chess than there are atoms in the observable universe.

  12. The element mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature

  13. The smell of rain is caused by a chemical called petrichor, which is released when raindrops hit the ground.

  14. The chemical compound capsaicin, which gives chili peppers their spicy taste, can actually help to alleviate pain.

  15. When exposed to air, bananas release a chemical called ethylene gas, which can cause other nearby fruits to ripen more quickly.

  16. The chemical element gold is so malleable that it can be stretched into a wire that is only five atoms wide.

  17. Diamonds are not actually the hardest substance on Earth - that title belongs to a substance called wurtzite boron nitride.

  18. The smell of freshly cut grass is caused by a chemical called cis-3-hexenal, which is also found in cilantro and some other plants.

  19. The substance that gives grapefruit its bitter taste can actually interfere with certain medications and cause harmful side effects.

  20. The chemical element helium is the only element that was first discovered on the sun before it was found on Earth.

  21. The chemical compound carbon dioxide (CO2) is responsible for the greenhouse effect, which is causing global warming and climate change.

  22. The element sodium (Na) is highly reactive and can catch fire when exposed to water.

  23. The substance that gives turmeric its yellow color is called curcumin, which has anti-inflammatory properties.

  24. The chemical compound caffeine found in coffee & tea, is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system and can improve mental alertness and performance.

  25. The element carbon (C) is the basis of all known life on Earth and is found in all organic molecules.

  26. The chemical compound nitroglycerin, used in explosives and heart medication, is highly unstable and can explode if exposed to heat or shock.

  27. The substance that gives blueberries their blue color is called anthocyanin, which has antioxidant properties  

  28. The chemical compound formaldehyde is a carcinogen and is used in embalming fluids and some building materials.

  29. The element mercury (Hg) is toxic and can cause severe neurological damage if ingested or inhaled.

  30. The chemical compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a powerful oxidizer and can be used as a disinfectant, bleach, and hair bleach.

  31. The element carbon (C) can exist in several allotropes, including diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. 

  32. The chemical compound aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is derived from salicylic acid, which is found in willow bark and has pain-relieving properties.

  33. The element oxygen (O) makes up about 21% of the Earth's atmosphere and is essential for respiration in humans and other animals.

  34. The chemical compound table salt (NaCl) is made up of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) ions and is essential for human health.

  35. The element gold (Au) is highly resistant to corrosion and is used in jewelry, coins, and electronic devices.

  36. The chemical compound citric acid is found in citrus fruits and is used as a preservative and flavor enhancer in food and drink.

  37. The element iron (Fe) is essential for human health and is found in hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.

  38. The chemical compound benzene is a carcinogen and is found in gasoline and some solvents.

  39. The element uranium (U) is used as fuel in nuclear reactors and can also be used to make nuclear weapons.

  40. The element helium (He) is the second most abundant element in the universe, but is relatively rare on Earth.

  41. The chemical compound adrenaline (epinephrine) is a hormone produced by the body that increases heart rate and blood pressure in response to stress or danger.

  42. The element chlorine (Cl) is a highly reactive gas and is used as a disinfectant in water treatment and as a bleaching agent in paper and textile production.

  43. The chemical compound penicillin, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, revolutionized medicine by providing the first effective treatment for bacterial infections.

  44. The element mercury (Hg) is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature and is used in thermometers, barometers, and fluorescent lights.

  45. The chemical compound acetic acid, found in vinegar, is used as a food preservative and as a cleaning agent.

  46. The element potassium (K) is essential for plant growth and is also important for nerve and muscle function in humans and other animals.

  47. The chemical compound methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive stimulant drug that can cause severe health problems and is illegal in many countries.

  48. The element carbon (C) is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and is found in all known life forms.

  49. The chemical compound nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is used as an anesthetic and as a recreational drug, but can also cause serious health problems if misused.

  50. The chemical compound dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the brain's reward system and can affect mood, motivation, and other aspects of behavior.

  51. The element gold (Au) has been prized for its beauty and rarity for thousands of years and is used in jewelry, coins, and other decorative objects.
  52. The chemical compound aspartame is a popular artificial sweetener that is used in many diet sodas and other low-calorie foods.
  53. The element oxygen (O) is essential for life and makes up about 21% of the Earth's atmosphere.
  54. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive acid that is used in many industrial processes, including the production of PVC plastics.
  55. The chemical compound carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and is produced by many human activities, including burning fossil fuels.
  56. The element iron (Fe) is a key component of steel and is also essential for many biological processes in the body, including the transport of oxygen by red blood cells.
  57. The chemical compound MSG (monosodium glutamate) is a controversial food additive that has been linked to various health problems, although the evidence is not conclusive.
  58. The element lithium (Li) is used in rechargeable batteries, as well as in the treatment of bipolar disorder and other mental health conditions.
  59. The element titanium (Ti) is used in aerospace applications, medical implants, and many other high-tech products due to its strength, low density, and resistance to corrosion.
  60. The chemical compound ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is found in alcoholic beverages and can cause intoxication and other effects when consumed in excess. 

Sunday, 13 February 2022

How to Measure Temperature With a Mercury Thermometer

 How To Measure Temperature With A Mercury Thermometer

How to Measure Temperature With a Thermometer

Temperature is one of the important property which tells us so much information about substance or body. With the help of temperature you can predict in which state the material is, is it cool or hot, is it good too touch or not, thermodynamics, and even about humans you can get information like someone is well or suffering from fever etc.

Too measure temperature place tip of thermometer in substance (liquids like water, oil) whose temperature to be measured. Wait for some time. Mercury rises upside and stop rising after some time. This reading at which mercury stop rising is your temperature reading.

You can measure temperature at any scale or convert in any scale like degree Celsius, degree Fahrenheit, Kelvin etc.

Human body temperature can be measured with analog (mercury) or digital thermometer. To measure temperature of human body place thermometer under tongue or armpit. Hold the thermometer their for about 40-50 seconds then see reading on thermometer. In digital thermometer their is generally a beep sound, indicating measurement complete. So you can remove thermometer and see temperature reading on display of digital thermometer.

Video on How To Measure Temperature With A Thermometer

Thursday, 3 February 2022

What are Essential Amino Acids | Definition, Structure, Foods & Infographics | Amino Acids

What are Essential Amino Acids | Definition, Structure, Foods, Infographics | Amino Acids

Definition of Amino Acid

Amino acid is a simple organic compound that contains a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.

What are Amino Acids?

Amino acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl (—COOH) and amino (—NH2) functional group with side chain, this side chain is specific to amino acid. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen are some important element which present in amino acids. Some other elements may also present in side chain of some amino acids.

Importance of Amino Acids

As we all know that our body contains large amount of proteins also these proteins play important role in biological processes happening within human body. Amino acids are building blocks of these proteins means proteins contain amino acids.

Amino acids play key role in many body functions like cell structure, storage and transport of nutrients, proper functioning of organs, proper functioning of glands, proper functioning of arteries, proper functioning of tendons, healing of wounds, repairing tissues, removal of metabolic waste etc.

Amino Acids

There are so many amino acids present in nature but gene codes only 20 amino acid. Essential amino acids are type of amino acid which can not produced by human body so they are needed in dietary food. Two amino acids combines by a peptide bond to form dipeptide.

peptide bond

And amino acids further added to grow chain of peptides to form poly-peptide or protein.

Areas of Use of Amino Acids

1. Anti-aging

Supply of amino acids to the body provides repair treatment means nourish human skin, nails and hair result in delay aging process naturally. Supply of amino acids strengthens connective tissue to keep our skin smooth, shine, glowing and elastic. Creatine play very important role to keep skin healthy and this creatine is made up of amino acids like Arginine and Methionine. 

Glutamine amino acid is responsible to regulate acid-base balance as a result it supports healthy skin. Carnitine is a di-peptide containing two essential amino acids lysine and Methionine. Carnitine helps in burning fat to produce energy so also known as fat burner so also added in fitness and wellness program.

2. Arthritis

Amino acid Methionine helps in cartilage formation, also Methionine is essential amino acid so do not get produced within human body but need to be provided from outside i.e. from diet or food. 

Methionine also donates Sulphur which helps in joint cartilage creation. Along with amino acids vitamins and minerals are also required for healthy joints.

3. Cholesterol

Arginine amino acid helps in lowering the cholesterol level.

4. Diabetes

In diabetes person’s blood sugar level get high than normal level due to many reasons like pancreas do not produce enough insulin, insulin resistance etc. Amino acid Arginine help in reducing insulin resistance by increasing sensitivity of our body cells toward insulin so insulin get easily absorbed.

5. Fat Burning

Goal of weight loss is achieved by fat burning. Human growth hormone is an important fat burning hormone and amino acids Arginine, Glutamine and Methionine helps to secrete this hormone.

6. Hair and Nails

Amino acid Methionine prevents hair loss and strengthens nails. Amino acid Glutamine and Arginine increases hair growth.

What is Zwitterions

•    Below pH 2.2 amino acid have net charge of +1 due to the predominant form of amino acid have a neutral carboxylic acid functional group and a positive α-ammonium.
•    Above pH 9.4 amino acid have net charge of -1 due to the predominant form of amino acid have a negative carboxylate and neutral α-amino group.
•    At pH between 2.2 and 9.4 amino acid have net charge of ZERO due to the predominant form of amino acid have both a negative carboxylate and a positive α-ammonium functional group and this molecular state of amino acid is known as a Zwitterion.

What is Isoelectric Point

Isoelectric point is a pH at which molecule carry zero net electric charge. In case of amino acids at pH between 2.2 and 9.4 amino acid have net electric charge of ZERO so this range of pH gives Isoelectric Point of Amino Acids as shown in below image.

List of Amino Acids

Below is the chemistry infographics image of list of amino acids.

list of amino acids

What are Essential Amino Acids

Essential amino acids are amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the human body so these amino acids must be supplied in diet. The nine essential amino acids, which human body cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, and Histidine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- F, V, T, W, M, L, I, K, H.

Six additional amino acids are measured conditionally essential in the human diet. These six amino acids are Arginine, Cysteine, Glycine, Glutamine, Proline, and Tyrosine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- R, C, G, Q, P, Y.

Five amino acids are not essential in humans because they fully synthesized in the body. These five amino acids are Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Asparagine, Glutamic Acid, and Serine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- A, D, N, E, S.

List of Essential Amino Acids and Non-Essential Amino Acids

Below is the chemistry infographics image of list of essential amino acids and non essential amino acids.

List of Essential Amino Acids and list of Non-Essential Amino Acids

Amino Acids Structure Images

Below are the structure images of amino acids.

Foods High in Essential Amino Acids

Essential amino acids are required daily in our diet to live healthy, So it is very important to include food having high amino acids in your diet. 

Amino acids are building blocks of protein. You can get enough essential amino acids by consuming foods rich in protein. Plant foods and animal foods both contain proteins. These given below are some foods name which are the best sources of dietary amino acids-
  • Soybean
  • Legumes
  • Beans
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Mushrooms
  • Grains
  • Vegitables

  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Yogurt
  • Cottage cheese
  • Turkey
  • Red meat
  • Eggs
  • Seafood
  • Fish
  • Chicken

Hope you enjoy learning of amino acids. You can also explore these interesting science topics-

Wednesday, 2 February 2022

Forensic Science Chemistry - Famous Forensic Scientists and Forensic Chemist

Forensic Science Chemistry - Famous Forensic Scientists and Forensic Chemist

In this post we will learn about forensic science and forensic drug chemistry. Also learn about fathers of various fields of forensic science and famous forensic scientists and forensic chemist.

In this post we will learn about forensic science and forensic drug chemistry. Also learn about fathers of various fields of forensic science and famous forensic scientists and forensic chemist.

Definition of Forensic Science

Forensic science is the application of scientific methods and techniques to matters under investigation by a court of law. Almost all branches of science may contributes to solve a crime scene, hence comes under forensic science.

Forensic Drug Chemistry

Forensic drug chemistry is the sub-branch of chemistry.  Forensic drug chemistry is used in identification of matter generally illegal drugs. The Forensic chemist examines the samples bring in forensic chemistry lab. Forensic chemist tries to find the name of matter or drug by examining the atoms and molecules in matter. Also find how these atoms and molecules interact and bond with each other. As we know, all matter or drug substance has a chemical signature (Spectrum, that you study under spectroscopy) and or some physical and chemical properties which are unique to only that substance. Forensic chemists use these physical and chemical properties to identify matter or drug substances using scientific techniques or methods. Findings by examining samples are presented as facts in court. Forensic chemistry covers analysis of any matter like illegal drugs, explosives, poisons etc.


What does Forensic Scientists and Forensic Chemist do ?

Forensic Scientists examine and analyze evidence or matter obtain from crime scenes. Forensic chemists conduct analysis of matter forensic chemistry. While other forensic scientists do other analysis like fingerprinting, handwriting analysis, DNA, trace evidence examination, fire and explosives examinations, forensic toxicology, digital evidence and many other analysis.  After doing all analysis they develop objective findings that can assist in the investigation and prosecution of person who has done crime or release the innocent person.

List of World Famous Forensic Scientists and Forensic Chemist 

Given below is the list of world famous forensic scientists & forensic chemists. These forensic chemists or forensic experts made great contribution to solve mysterious crime scenes and help in providing justice.

Dr. William Bass (United States)
Dr. Joseph Bell (Scotland)
Dr. Edmond Locard (France)
Pakkiriswamy Chandra Sekharan (India)
Dr. Henry Faulds (United Kingdom)
William R. Maples (United States)
Henry Chang-Yu Lee (China)
Frances Glessner Lee (United States)
Robert P. Spalding (United States)

List of Famous Indian Forensic Scientists and Forensic Chemist 

Given below is the list of popular forensic chemist and forensic scientists in India. These are very popular scientists in India, who made great contribution to solve mysterious crime scenes & help in providing justice.
Pakkiriswamy Chandra Sekharan
Anil Aggrawal
Tirath Das Dogra
Bhooshana Rao
Chandre Gowda
J. M. Vyas
Yusuf Matcheswalla
K. S. Narayan Reddy
Kewal Krishan

List of Fathers of Various Fields of Forensic Science

Given below is the list of fathers of various fields of forensic science.

Fields of Forensic Science

Name of Scientists or Father of

Father of Forensic Science

Bernard Spilsbury

Father of Fingerprints

Francis Galton

Father of Toxicology


Modern Father of Toxicology

Mathieu Orfila

Father of Forensic Odontology

Oscar Amoedo

Father of Criminal Identification System

Alphonse Bertillon

Father of DNA Fingerprinting

Alec John Jeffreys

Father of Criminology

Cesare Lombroso

Father of Forensic Medicine

Paolo Zacchia

Father of Forensic photography

Alphonse Bertillon

Father of Forensic Psychology

Hugo Munsterberg

Father of Criminalistics

Hans Gross

Father of Firearm and tool mark examination

Calvin H. Goddard

Father of Explosives

Alfred Nobel

Father of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Dr. Eduard Piotrowski

Father of Computer Forensics

Michael Anderson

Do you want to become forensic chemist ? Comment below-
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