Friday, 19 June 2015

Physical State, Classification and Properties of Matter

Physical states of matter

=> Solid, liquid, gas.
Physical state
Definite volume
Definite shape
Book, pen
Water, milk
CO2, Air

Temperature & pressure effect on physical state

            Classification of matter: -

1.       Mixture:
a.       Homogeneous mixture
b.      Heterogeneous mixture
2.       Pure substance:
a.       Elements
b.      Compounds
1.       Mixture: - It contains two or more substances in any ration known as its components.
Ex: - air, tea etc.
a.       Homogeneous mixture:- its components are completely mix with each other and have uniform composition throughout the solution.
Ex:- sugar solution, air.
b.      Heterogeneous mixture:- its components do not have uniform composition throughout solution sometimes different components observed.
Ex:- mixture of salt & sugar, sand & soil.
2.       Pure substances:- these have fixed composition.
Ex:- copper, gold, water etc.
a.       Elements:- It consists of only one type of particles (i.e. atoms or molecules)
Ex:- H2, O2, Au, Ag.
b.      Compounds:- It consist of two or more atoms to give a molecule of compound
Ex:- CO2, NH3, H2O.

Properties of matter

1)      Physical properties:- Those properties which can be measured or observed.
2)      Chemical properties:- those properties in which chemical changes occurs.
Ex:- Acidity, Basicity, Combustibility etc.
SI :-  International System of units
=>  Established by 11th general conference on weight and measures.
=>  Si have seven fundamental units
=>  Other units are divided from seven fundamental units
Mass:- amount of matter in object
=>  1 kg = 1000 gram
Weight: -force on the object by gravity.
Volume:- (length)3
=>  1 L = 1000 ml, 1000 cm3 = 1dm3
Density:- Amount of mass per unit volume.
=>  SI unit :- Kgm-3
Temperature:- It is the measurement of cooling or warming.
Three scales
=>  0C (Degree Celsius)
=>  0F degree Fahrenheit)
=>  k (Kelvin)
=>  freezing point of water = 0 0C
=>  Boiling point of water = 100 0C
k = 0C + 273.15
Precision:- Closeness of various measurement for same quantity.
Accuracy:- It is the agreement of a particular value to the true value of the result.
Significant figure:- The meaningful digits which are known with certainty.

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