Chemistry Podcast

Wednesday, 3 June 2015

Covalent Compounds and Types of Covalent Bonds

Covalent Compounds

                                   Compound which are formed as a result of covalent bonding and containing covalent bonds are known as Covalent Compounds.
Example: Hydrogen, Chlorine, Oxygen, Water, Ethanol etc.

Types of Covalent Bonds

Covalent Bonds are of three types which are as follows-

Single Covalent Bonds

                                      Bonds which are formed due to sharing of single pair of electrons between two atoms are called single covalent bond. It is represented by single line (-)
Example: Formation of H2 molecule, Formation of Cl2 molecule.

i.                   Formation of Hydrogen (H2) molecule:

                                                         In the outermost shell of hydrogen atom, it have single electron, which it share with another hydrogen atom to acquire inert configuration of helium so single bond is formed between these two hydrogen atoms and this single covalent bond is represented by single line (-)

ii.                 Formation of Chlorine Molecule (Cl2) :

In the outermost shell of chlorine atom, it have seven electrons, it share its one valence electron with another chlorine atom to form chlorine molecule by single covalent bond.

Double Covalent Bonds

                                      Bonds which are formed due to sharing of double pair of electrons between two atoms are called double covalent bond. It is represented by double line (=)
Example: Formation of O2 molecule.

i.                   Formation of Oxygen (O2) molecule:

                                                          In the outermost shell of oxygen atom, it have six electrons, it share its two valence electrons with another oxygen atom to form oxygen molecule by double covalent bond.

Triple Covalent Bonds

                                      Bonds which are formed due to sharing of triple pair of electrons between two atoms are called triple covalent bond. It is represented by triple lines
Example: Formation of N2 molecule.

i.                   Formation of Nitrogen (N2) molecule:

                                                          In the outermost shell of nitrogen atom, it have five electrons, it share its three valence electrons with another nitrogen atom to form nitrogen molecule by triple covalent bond.
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Tuesday, 2 June 2015

Simple Chemical Reaction and General Rule for writing Simple Chemical Reaction

Simple Chemical Reaction

                                         Chemical reaction is represented by chemical equation in brief by taking help of symbol and formula of participating substances in reaction.

General Rule for writing Simple Chemical Reaction

   1.     Reactant are written on left hand side and if more than one reactant are present than write plus (+) sign between them.
   2.     Product are written on left hand side and if more than one product are present than write plus (+) sign between them.
   3.     Arrow sign is placed between reactants and products.
Example: Zn + H2SO4 ( Reactants)  -----> ZnSO4 + H2 (Products)
 4.     To get more information from the reaction write temperature, pressure, catalyst name above or below arrow sign. 
   5.     On the right side of the gaseous substances sign and on the left side of heavy substances which precipitate sign is placed.
   6.     Reactions which absorb heat are known as endothermic reactions and (+Q) heat sign is added on reactant side.
   7.     Reactions which produce heat are known as exothermic reactions and (+Q) heat sign is added on product side.
    8.     (Aq) is written for aqueous solution substances.
    
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Electrovalent Compound and Characteristics of Electrovalent Compounds

Electrovalent Compound

                             The compounds which contain ionic or electrovalent bonds are known as Electrovalent or Ionic Compounds. Mainly electrovalent compounds are formed due to reaction between highly electropositive and highly electronegative atoms.

Characteristics of Electrovalent Compounds

1.     Crystal Structure:

                              In solid state of electrovalent compounds anions and cations are arranged in regular manner called as crystal, In which anions surrounded by definite number of cations and cations surrounded by definite number of anions.

2.     Physical Nature:

       Ionic or electrovalent compounds are generally hard and their hardness increases with increasing ionic charge and decreasing distance between ions.

3.     Solubility:

Positive ion of ionic compound attach with negative part of polar solvent and negative ion of ionic compound attach with positive part of polar solvent, so ionic or electrovalent compounds are soluble in polar solvents like water and insoluble in non polar solvents like benzene, ether, alcohol.

4.     Melting Point and Boiling Point:

Electrovalent or ionic compounds have high Melting and boiling points because they need large amount of energy to break strong ionic bonds.

5.     Electrical Conductivity:

                                    In molten and solution forms electrovalent compounds conduct electricity because ions flows in molten and solution forms.




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Monday, 1 June 2015

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Friday, 29 May 2015

Chemical Bonding

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Chemical Bonding

Molecule forms by the combination of two atoms of elements, the attraction force operate between atoms is known asChemical Bonding. Chemical bonds are formed due to presence of valence electrons in atoms which present in outermost shell of atom.
Question: Why chemical bonds are formed between atoms?
Answer: Chemical bonds are formed between atoms to achieve stable state like inert or noble gases.
Atoms achieve stable state of nearest inert gas with complete octet in two ways:
1.     By exchanging electron with any other atom.
2.     By sharing electron with any other atom.

Types of Chemical Bonds

2.     Covalent Bond

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