Chemistry Podcast

Monday, 15 August 2016

Chemistry Notes in Hindi Medium

हिंदी माध्यम में रसायन विज्ञान नोट्स

हिंदी में हमारे रसायन शास्त्र के नोट्स पाने के लिए नीचे दिखाए चरणों का पालन करें -
अ -  सबसे पहले हमारी वेबसाइट पर जाएँ
ब - दाहिने और देखें, आपको ब्लॉग आर्काइव के निचे भासा बदलने का बटन मिलेगा उसे दबाएं और अपनी भासा चयन करें
स - कुछ समय इंतजार करें, पूरी वेबसाइट आपकी भासा में परिवर्तित हो जाएगी
हम क्लास ९, १०, ११, १२, स्नातक, स्नातकोत्तर की केमिस्ट्री के नोट्स उपलब्थ करवाते हैं
केमिस्ट्री के नोट्स पाने के लिए हमारी वेबसाइट "" को सब्सक्राइब लाइक और सेयर करें
केमिस्ट्रीनोट्सइन्फो.कॉम Chemistry notes in Hindi Language

  Chemistry Notes In Hindi Medium

To get our chemistry study tutorials lecture notes in Hindi do the following steps as shown below..... 

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Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

organic chemistry

What is Organic Chemistry ?

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which involve the scientific study of structure, properties & reactions of organic species, compounds or organic materials, means matter have various forms found that contains carbon atoms. Study of structure of organic chemistry compounds includes use of spectroscopy techniques like IR Spectroscopy, Microwave Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, X – Ray Diffraction, Electron Diffraction, Neutron Diffraction and other physical and/or chemical type of methods to examine chemical composition and chemical constitution of the organic chemistry compounds and materials to be analysed. This is article on what is organic chemistry at “chemistry notes info blog”. Study of properties of organic compound includes study of both physical properties as well as chemical properties of organic chemistry compounds, which uses the similar methods and also methods to evaluate the chemical reactivity to understand behaviour of organic matter (organic sample) in its pure form (if when possible), otherwise in solution, mixture forms. Study of chemistry of organic reactions includes the searching their possibility through use in the preparations of goal molecule or compounds like natural products, medicinal drugs, polymers, solvents, etc.) by their chemical synthesis, also focused on the study of  reactivity’s of the individual organic molecules. This article is about basics understanding of organic chemistry under post organic chemistry lecture notes at . Below is a 3D diagram of methane CH4 molecule in tetrahedral geometry with bond angle of 109 degree.
Structure of Methane - Organic chemistry lecture notes
Structure of Methane  Organic Chemistry - Characterization

 To identify purity of organic compounds methods or techniques used now-days are Chromatography like HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), GC (Gas Chromatography) and Spectroscopy like Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, Crystallography. and old methods and techniques to identify purity of organic compounds are distillation, crystallization, and solvent extraction.

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

These properties help in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Quantitative info includes M.P. (melting point), B.P. (boiling point), & index of refraction. Qualitative info includes odor, solubility, consistency and color.

Nomenclature in Organic Chemistry

Organic compounds are generally named in two ways i.e. traditional names and systematic names. Traditional names are parent names like for Vitamin B3, its traditional name is Niacin. Systematic names are scientific names given by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature system like for Vitamin B3, its systematic name by IUPAC system is Pyridin-3-Carboxylic-Acid.

Classification of Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are classified on the basis of Functional Groups, Aliphatic compounds, Aromatic compounds, Heterocyclic compounds, Polymers, Biomolecules etc.

Organic Reactions

Organic reactions are those chemical reactions which involve organic compounds.

Glucose + Fructose ------> Sucrose

Sunday, 31 July 2016

Charge Transfer Transition


Definition of charge transfer Transition by- All electronic transition that occur between orbitals that are centered on different atoms is known as charge transfer Transition. It's absorption band is very strong Types of charge transfer bands Two types of charge transfer bands seen in metal complexes. i.e. 1: Legand to Metal charge transfer bands. 2: Metal to Legand charge transfer bands... read more at

Definition of charge transfer Transition

All electronic transition that occur between orbitals that are centered on different atoms is known as charge transfer Transition.
It's absorption band is very strong

Types of charge transfer bands

Two types of charge transfer bands seen in metal complexes. i.e.
1: Legand to Metal charge transfer bands.
2: Metal to Legand charge transfer bands.

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Sunday, 17 July 2016

Extraction of Essential Oil by Steam Distillation of Tulsi (Ocimum Basillicum)

Extraction of Essential Oil by Steam Distillation of Tulsi (Ocimum Basillicum)

Essential oils are insoluble in water and evaporate easily. We can obtain essential oil from plant tissues by distillation or extraction processes. Generally essential oils are obtain from every part of plant like stem, root, leaves, flowers, seed, branches etc. And these essential oils are used in the preparation of drugs, cosmetics and perfumes.
Holi Tulsi Plant
Ocimum Basillicum means Tulsi is an aromatic plant. Ocimum Basillicum is used to obtain essential oil useful for different application. This oil evaporates within 24 hours after applying it to our body. This essential oil helps in cure of digestion problem, strained muscles, headaches and nervous breakdowns. Due to its good medicinal properties and aroma its demand is very high in many countries. A person or company can build a small or large scale industry for the extraction of essential oil from Ocimum Basillicum (Tulsi).

Top 10 General qualitative properties of Ocimum Basillicum essential oil are given below-

essential oil extraction equipment photo1.  Appearance : Transparent fluid
2.  Color : Pale yellow
3.  Fragrance : Ocimum Basillicum’s distinctive flavor and fragrance
4.  Refractive Index on 20°C : 1.51200 to1.51900
5.  Specific Gravity on 25°C : 0.95200 to 0.97300
6.  Optical gyration on 25°C : [-] 8.85º to [-] 11.85º
7.  Well mixed with Hydroxycitronellal
8.  Insoluble in water
9.  Dissolved in paraffin oil

How to obtain oil from holi Tulsi plant?

The extraction of essential oil by steam distillation of ocimum basillicum (Tulsi) is a solid-liquid extraction process. This process completes in following steps-
Flow diagram of steam distilatillation
1.  Collect plant material and dry it if required.
2.  Fill this plant material in distillation vessel.
3.  Add water or solvent (like Ethanol, n-Hexane) in distillation vessel.
4.  Heat the mixture in well-equipped distillation vessel in control environment and controlled temperature, then
5.  Diffusion of essential oil from inside of solid material of plant to its surface occurs, then
6.  Transfer of mass from surface of plant solid material to surrounding liquid occurs, then
7.  This liquid contains essential oil which is obtained by reverse cooler.
8.  Then the collection of above liquid obtained from reverse cooler is put to stand for some time then essential oil come over water, then
9.  We perform layer separation to separate out essential oil from water, then
10.              Store this essential oil in dark, closed vessel for future use.
how to obtain Essential oil by steam distillation ?
The experimental results proves that yield of essential oil of Tulsi (Ocimum-Basillicum)  from only leaves of plant is slightly higher than from the mixture of leaves and stems (means plant crush).

Saturday, 25 June 2016

What is Hyperconjugation

Definition of Hyper conjugation

What is Hyperconjugation
What is Hyperconjugation?
Hyperconjugation is stabilizing interactions that are results from interaction of electrons in a sigma (σ-bond) (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially-filled p-orbital or a pi (π) orbital to give an extended molecular orbitals that increases stability of system.
Hyper-conjugation is chemistry terminology and also known as Sigma (σ) electron delocalization.
        The movement of pi (π) electrons through p-orbital pathway is the Mesomeric-effect and leads to the resonance.
        The movement of sigma (σ) electrons through adjacent pi (π) system or a carbocation is the hyperconjugation. And hyper-conjugation therefore involves the sigma (σ) electron delocalization.
definition of hyper conjugation
The electrons of sigma (σ) bond between C and H are involved in the delocalization.
In the upper structure there is no bond between C and H due to the migration of sigma (σ) bond. Hence hyperconjugation is also known as “no bond resonance”.
       This does not mean that the H-atom is completely detached from structure.  As it indicates the some degree of ionic character in C-H bond and some single bond character between C-C double bond.

When we see Toluene structure, there is a partial negative-charge on the C-atom bonded to the methyl (-CH3) group and the methyl C-atom is slightly positive-charge. This is due to hyperconjugation and has proved by the X-Ray diffraction studies.
Toluene is an example of "heterovalent hyperconjugation" or "sacrificial hyperconjugation", because the contributing structure (of toluene in hyperconjugation) contains one two-electron bond less than normal Lewis formula for the toluene.
"heterovalent hyperconjugation" or "sacrificial hyperconjugation"
Hyperconjugation can account for the (I-effect) Inductive effect. In Toluene, methyl group exhibits the +I effect that is responsible for the polarization of the electron (e-) density.

The interaction between filled pi (π) or p-orbitals and adjacent antibonding sigma (σ *) orbitals gives "negative hyperconjugation", example of negative hyperconjugation is fluoroethyl anion.
The interaction between sigma (σ) bonds and an unfilled or partially filled pi (π) or p-orbital gives "isovalent hyperconjugation", example of isovalent hyperconjugation is tert-butyl cation.

What are the requirements for the Hyper-Conjugation?

Requirements for the Hyper-Conjugation is described below-
  • Hyper-Conjugation exists in the carbocations, free radicals and alkenes and arenes.
  • The alpha (α) C-atom next to the pi (π) bond (double bond) or C free radical or C+ (carbocation) should be sp3 hybridized with at least one H-atom bonded to it.
Hyper-Conjugation exists in the carbocations, free radicals and alkenes and arenes

What is the effect of hyperconjugation on chemical structure?

  • Due to hyperconjugation C-C single bond gains some double bond character while C=C double bond gains some single bond character.
  • Therefore C=C double bond length in the substituted alkenes at all times greater than in ehtene.

Based on the valence-bond-model of the bonding, hyper-conjugation can be described as the "double bond- no bond resonance" but really it is not what we would say "normally" resonance.

What is main difference between resonance and hyperconjugation?

Resonance involves pi orbitals but Hyperconjugation involves a sigma orbital, usually a C-H or C-C bond.


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