Chemistry Podcast

Showing posts with label INNOVATIVE EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label INNOVATIVE EDUCATION. Show all posts

Sunday, 19 March 2023

Interesting Chemistry Facts

Interesting Chemistry Facts

"Did you know that the compound responsible for the spicy kick in chili peppers is called capsaicin? Not only does it make your mouth burn, but it also has potential health benefits like reducing inflammation and pain. #ChemistryFacts #SpicyScience 🌶️🔬"


Hello Chemistry Lovers!!!

                Here are the some interesting chemistry facts which make your day...

  1. Water is the only substance on earth that can exist naturally in all three states: solid, liquid, and gas. 


  2. At room temperature and pressure, some metals like gold and copper are so soft that they can be cut with a knife. 


  3. A diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance known, but it is not the strongest. In fact, it is quite brittle and can be shattered easily. 

  4. Carbon, the element that forms the basis of all known life on Earth, has an incredible ability to bond with other elements. This makes it a versatile building block for molecules of all shapes and sizes.

  5. The periodic table of elements, which arranges all known elements by their atomic structure and chemical properties, was first published by Russian Scientist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869.

  6. The human body contains a range of chemical elements, including carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and iron. In fact, about 99% of the human body is made up of just six elements.

  7. Chemical reactions can be exothermic (releasing heat) or endothermic (absorbing heat). For example, the combustion of gasoline in a car engine is exothermic, while the process of melting ice is endothermic.

  8. Many common elements have fascinating properties. For instance, mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature, while bromine is a liquid that evaporates to form a red gas.

  9. Chemical reactions are essential for life. They allow us to break down food and other molecules for energy, create new molecules for growth and repair, and perform countless other vital functions.

  10. Chemical elements and compounds can have a wide range of practical applications, from providing fuel and energy to creating materials for construction and manufacturing. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to season food, but it is also an important ingredient in the production of chemicals, paper, and textiles. 


  11. There are more possible iterations of a game of chess than there are atoms in the observable universe.

  12. The element mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature

  13. The smell of rain is caused by a chemical called petrichor, which is released when raindrops hit the ground.

  14. The chemical compound capsaicin, which gives chili peppers their spicy taste, can actually help to alleviate pain.

  15. When exposed to air, bananas release a chemical called ethylene gas, which can cause other nearby fruits to ripen more quickly.

  16. The chemical element gold is so malleable that it can be stretched into a wire that is only five atoms wide.

  17. Diamonds are not actually the hardest substance on Earth - that title belongs to a substance called wurtzite boron nitride.

  18. The smell of freshly cut grass is caused by a chemical called cis-3-hexenal, which is also found in cilantro and some other plants.

  19. The substance that gives grapefruit its bitter taste can actually interfere with certain medications and cause harmful side effects.

  20. The chemical element helium is the only element that was first discovered on the sun before it was found on Earth.

  21. The chemical compound carbon dioxide (CO2) is responsible for the greenhouse effect, which is causing global warming and climate change.

  22. The element sodium (Na) is highly reactive and can catch fire when exposed to water.

  23. The substance that gives turmeric its yellow color is called curcumin, which has anti-inflammatory properties.

  24. The chemical compound caffeine found in coffee & tea, is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system and can improve mental alertness and performance.

  25. The element carbon (C) is the basis of all known life on Earth and is found in all organic molecules.

  26. The chemical compound nitroglycerin, used in explosives and heart medication, is highly unstable and can explode if exposed to heat or shock.

  27. The substance that gives blueberries their blue color is called anthocyanin, which has antioxidant properties  

  28. The chemical compound formaldehyde is a carcinogen and is used in embalming fluids and some building materials.

  29. The element mercury (Hg) is toxic and can cause severe neurological damage if ingested or inhaled.

  30. The chemical compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a powerful oxidizer and can be used as a disinfectant, bleach, and hair bleach.

  31. The element carbon (C) can exist in several allotropes, including diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. 

  32. The chemical compound aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is derived from salicylic acid, which is found in willow bark and has pain-relieving properties.

  33. The element oxygen (O) makes up about 21% of the Earth's atmosphere and is essential for respiration in humans and other animals.

  34. The chemical compound table salt (NaCl) is made up of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) ions and is essential for human health.

  35. The element gold (Au) is highly resistant to corrosion and is used in jewelry, coins, and electronic devices.

  36. The chemical compound citric acid is found in citrus fruits and is used as a preservative and flavor enhancer in food and drink.

  37. The element iron (Fe) is essential for human health and is found in hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.

  38. The chemical compound benzene is a carcinogen and is found in gasoline and some solvents.

  39. The element uranium (U) is used as fuel in nuclear reactors and can also be used to make nuclear weapons.

  40. The element helium (He) is the second most abundant element in the universe, but is relatively rare on Earth.

  41. The chemical compound adrenaline (epinephrine) is a hormone produced by the body that increases heart rate and blood pressure in response to stress or danger.

  42. The element chlorine (Cl) is a highly reactive gas and is used as a disinfectant in water treatment and as a bleaching agent in paper and textile production.

  43. The chemical compound penicillin, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, revolutionized medicine by providing the first effective treatment for bacterial infections.

  44. The element mercury (Hg) is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature and is used in thermometers, barometers, and fluorescent lights.

  45. The chemical compound acetic acid, found in vinegar, is used as a food preservative and as a cleaning agent.

  46. The element potassium (K) is essential for plant growth and is also important for nerve and muscle function in humans and other animals.

  47. The chemical compound methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive stimulant drug that can cause severe health problems and is illegal in many countries.

  48. The element carbon (C) is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and is found in all known life forms.

  49. The chemical compound nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is used as an anesthetic and as a recreational drug, but can also cause serious health problems if misused.

  50. The chemical compound dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the brain's reward system and can affect mood, motivation, and other aspects of behavior.

  51. The element gold (Au) has been prized for its beauty and rarity for thousands of years and is used in jewelry, coins, and other decorative objects.
  52. The chemical compound aspartame is a popular artificial sweetener that is used in many diet sodas and other low-calorie foods.
  53. The element oxygen (O) is essential for life and makes up about 21% of the Earth's atmosphere.
  54. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive acid that is used in many industrial processes, including the production of PVC plastics.
  55. The chemical compound carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and is produced by many human activities, including burning fossil fuels.
  56. The element iron (Fe) is a key component of steel and is also essential for many biological processes in the body, including the transport of oxygen by red blood cells.
  57. The chemical compound MSG (monosodium glutamate) is a controversial food additive that has been linked to various health problems, although the evidence is not conclusive.
  58. The element lithium (Li) is used in rechargeable batteries, as well as in the treatment of bipolar disorder and other mental health conditions.
  59. The element titanium (Ti) is used in aerospace applications, medical implants, and many other high-tech products due to its strength, low density, and resistance to corrosion.
  60. The chemical compound ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is found in alcoholic beverages and can cause intoxication and other effects when consumed in excess. 

Sunday, 13 March 2022

Smartphone Chemistry

Chemistry of Smartphone

About 20 years before no one use smartphones but nowadays everyone have a smartphone. Apple iPhone 13 Pro, Google Pixel 6 Pro, Oppo Find X3 Pro, OnePlus 9 Pro, Sony Xperia 1 III, Asus ROG Phone 5s Pro and Xiaomi 11T Pro are examples of some popular smartphones. This article is all about chemistry behind smartphones by Chemistry Notes Info.
Smartphones Chemistry

Different Chemistry Elements in Smartphones

Typically smartphone contains many elements like Silver, Gold, Lithium, Praseodymium, Terbium, Yttrium, Gadolinium, Indium, Tin, Oxygen, Carbon, Copper, Tantalum, Silicon, Oxygen, Antimony, Arsenic, Phosphorus and Gallium.

Generally On Average a Smartphone Contains About 

  • 300 mg Silver (Ag having Atomic No. 47, Atomic Mass 107.87)
  • 30 mg Gold (Au having Atomic No. 79, Atomic Mass 196.97)
Battery- Generally smartphones have Li-Ion Battery, this battery have Lithium Cobalt Oxide as a +ve electrode and Carbon or Graphite as a -ve electrode. This -ve electrode release electrons which travel towards +ve electrode as a result provide power to your phone.
Screen- Screen contains following elements which provide color to screen to display visual content.
  •  Praseodymium (Pr having Atomic No. 59, Atomic Mass 140.91)
  • Terbium (Tb having Atomic No. 65, Atomic Mass 158.93)
  • Yttrium (Y having Atomic No. 39, Atomic Mass 88.91)
  • Gadolinium (Gd having Atomic No. 64, Atomic Mass 157.25)
 Touch- Touchscreen takes inputs from user and are transparent, all these are possible due to following elements
  • Indium (In having Atomic No. 49, Atomic Mass 114.82)
  • Tin (Sn having Atomic No. 50, Atomic Mass 118.71)
  • Oxygen (O having Atomic No. 8, Atomic Mass 16)
Wiring- Wiring or electrical circuits are made up of copper and capacitors are made up of Tantalum. Capacitor store regulate electricity and loose electrical charge in fraction of seconds.
  • Copper (Cu having Atomic No. 29, Atomic Mass 63.55)
  • Tantalum (Ta having Atomic No. 73, Atomic Mass 180.95)
Microchip- Microchip or CPU (Central Processing Unit) also called brain of smartphone is made-up of silicon, oxygen, antimony, arsenic, phosphorus and gallium. All these elements are used to produce highly conductive powerful microchips so you can play games, watch videos, click photos, use your phone camera for taking selfy, audio video recording, calling, chatting, using apps like whats app, facebook, twitter or whatsoever stuff you like to do with your smartphone is possible due to chemistry.
  • Silicon (Si having Atomic No. 14, Atomic Mass 28.09)
  • Oxygen (O having Atomic No. 8, Atomic Mass 16)
  • Antimony (Sb having Atomic No. 51, Atomic Mass 121.76)
  • Arsenic (As having Atomic No. 33, Atomic Mass 74.92)
  • Phosphorus (P having Atomic No. 15, Atomic Mass 30.97)
  • Gallium (Ga having Atomic No. 31, Atomic Mass 69.73)

What's Inside Your Smartphone

Smartphone chemistrySmartphone is made-up of different components which are assembled to make smartphones. Like display (to show visual content), touchscreen (to take inputs from user), cameras (to take photos, selfy and to shoot videos). Microphone (to receive audio or to record sound), case (body of phone), battery (to provide power), sim card slot (for sim), speakers (for sound, to listen music), sensors (for different purpose like ambient light sensor for light intensity means automatically set screen brightness according to surrounding light and ultimately save battery life. 
Gyroscope and accelerometer to play video-games as these sensor tracks phone movement, digital compass to detect north direction for maps and navigation, proximity sensor used to prevent unwanted touch commands by locking phone during phone call when you bring phone near your ear). 
Motherboard (printed circuit board containing principal components of smartphone with connectors for other circuit boards to be slotted into), memory (to store data, movies, photos, videos, songs), transceiver (to transmit and receive communications), radio (to transmit data and to receive data).
Cell phone radio (that communicate with cell tower, when you make call) wifi radio (to download big files, movies songs etc and they consume less battery as they travel very less distance) bluetooth radio, NFS rado, GPS radio etc. All these components contain some chemical elements of periodic table and when all components are assembled they give you smartphone which you use daily.

Sunday, 13 February 2022

How to Measure Temperature With a Mercury Thermometer

 How To Measure Temperature With A Mercury Thermometer

How to Measure Temperature With a Thermometer


Temperature is one of the important property which tells us so much information about substance or body. With the help of temperature you can predict in which state the material is, is it cool or hot, is it good too touch or not, thermodynamics, and even about humans you can get information like someone is well or suffering from fever etc.

Too measure temperature place tip of thermometer in substance (liquids like water, oil) whose temperature to be measured. Wait for some time. Mercury rises upside and stop rising after some time. This reading at which mercury stop rising is your temperature reading.

You can measure temperature at any scale or convert in any scale like degree Celsius, degree Fahrenheit, Kelvin etc.

Human body temperature can be measured with analog (mercury) or digital thermometer. To measure temperature of human body place thermometer under tongue or armpit. Hold the thermometer their for about 40-50 seconds then see reading on thermometer. In digital thermometer their is generally a beep sound, indicating measurement complete. So you can remove thermometer and see temperature reading on display of digital thermometer.


Video on How To Measure Temperature With A Thermometer



Saturday, 5 February 2022

What is Heat in Science | What is Temperature in Science | How to measure Temperature with Thermometer

What is Heat?

The exchange of energy due to difference in temperature is called heat. But as a noun we can say that the Heat is the quality of being hot or high temperature and to understand easily we can say that feeling of hot or warm is heat.



What is Heat in Science ?

The exchange of energy due to difference in temperature is called heat. We may also explain as, heat is the form of the energy that is moved between two substances at different temperatures. Means if two substances are in contact and one has 200K temperature and other have 100K temperature then the direction of energy flow is from the substance at the higher temperature to the substance of lower temperature. Means in above case heat flows from substance having 200k temperature to substance having 100K temperature.
Heat is a form of energy so heat is measured in units of energy, commonly calories or joules.

What is Temperature?

Temperature is the quantity of hotness or coldness of any substance. Simply we can say that Temperature is the measurement of how much an object is hot or cold.

What is Temperature in Science ?

Temperature is the quantity of hotness or coldness. Also in scientific way, temperature is explained as the average kinetic energy per molecule of a substance. Heat and Temperature (Temp, T) are two different terms and have different meanings so don’t get confuse between them.  Heat is energy while temperature is not energy. Heat is measured in Joules while temperature is measured in Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F) or Kelvin (K). Symbol used for heat is Q while symbol used for temperature is T. SI unit of heat is Joule while SI unit of temperature is Kelvin.

Heat VS Temperature in Chemistry

Heat is the flow of energy from hot object to cold object while temperature is the measurement of how much an object is hot or cold. Heat is energy while temperature is not energy. Heat is measured in Joules while temperature is measured in Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F) or Kelvin (K). Symbol used for heat is Q while symbol used for temperature is T. SI unit of heat is Joule while SI unit of temperature is Kelvin.

How to measure Temperature with Thermometer in degree Celsius & Fahrenheit

This video explains- 
How do you measure temperature with a thermometer?
and How do you read a Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometer?
After watching this video on temp., you can easily check temperature with thermometer.


Temperature is the measure of hotness or coldness of an object.
To convert temperatures from Fahrenheit to Celsius, 
use the formula C=(5/9)(F−32) 
and for Celsius to Fahrenheit, use the formula F=(9C/5)+32.

How to convert Temperature from one Unit to Another
By using below temperature conversion calculator, you can convert temperature from degree celsius to degree fahrenheit, degree celsius to kelvin. Similarly, from degree fahrenheit to degree celsius & degree fehrenheit to kelvin. Similarly, from kelvin to degree celsius and kelvin to degree fahrenheit.

Relationship between degree Celsius and degree Fahrenheit

    Use the formula ºC=(5/9)(ºF−32)

Relationship between degree Celsius and degree Kelvin

    Use the formula K = ºC + 273.15

Relationship between kelvin and degree Fahrenheit

   Use the formula K = 5/9 ºF + 459.67

Friday, 4 February 2022

What is Density in Chemistry - Definition, Symbol, SI Units, Formula & Measurement of Density

Definition, Symbol, SI Units, Formula & Measurement of Density

Density is simply mass per unit volume. Density of many samples is measured in labs for example in oil and gas industry. They define density in general way as 'weight per unit volume' although 'weight per unit volume' is not density it is 'Specific Weight' so density is 'mass per unit volume'

Example of Density

Don't worry! we will going to learning density in very simple way, with examples.
Do you ever see a dry WOOD piece floating over water in river or pool? 
Yes, We all see that, Do you think why it floats. Because density of wood 🪵 is lesser than density of water 💧 so piece of 🪵 wood experience upthrust force and float on water 💧. 

Take another example of Iron Metal piece and water. IRON METAL piece has higher density than WATER, so piece of iron metal sink in water.

To understand clearly, we will take another example of 'Sunflower Cooking oil' & 'Water'. When we mix 'Sunflower Cooking oil' & 'Water', after some time oil comes at top and water set below (means separate out). So now question is why this happens? Answer is due to difference in density & nature of water and oil. Oil is nonpolar while water is polar molecule so they don’t interact with each other. 
Density of Sunflower Cooking oil is 919 Kg/m3
Density of Water is 1000 kg/m3

What is Density in Chemistry

In science/chemistry, density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.  Density is also known as "Volumetric Mass Density". 

Generally different materials have different density. Chemical element Osmium (Os having atomic number 76) is naturally occurring densest element. To simplify the comparison of densities of different materials or liquids it is needed to replace density with "relative density" as relative density is dimensionless quantity. Relative Density is also called "Specific Gravity". 

Specific gravity or relative density is the ratio of density of sample material to the density of standard material. Generally water is taken as standard material. If we take water as standard material than if we get relative density of a material is less than '1' means that material floats in water. Water has highest density at 4 °C i.e. 1000Kg/m3.

Density of material depends on the temperature and pressure. Effect of temperature and pressure is very less on solid and liquid but effect of temperature and pressure is very high on gases. If we increase pressure on given material than its volume get decrease that result in increase in density, similarly If we decrease pressure on given material than its volume get increase that result in decrease in density. 

And in case of temperature, if we increase temperature on given material than its volume get increase that result in decrease in density, similarly if we decrease temperature on given material than its volume get decrease that result in increase in density. 

But their are some exceptions which do not follow these rules, one of them is water means when temperature of water decreases than it makes solid ice which float on liquid water as ice have less density than liquid water i.e. Density of ice is 916.7 Kg/m3 at 0 °C, and water has a density of 999.8 Kg/m³ at 0 °C.

Definition of Density

                           Density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume.

Symbol of Density

                             Symbol of density is 'ρ' or 'D' and pronounces as 'rho'.

Formula of Density

                             Density = Mass/Volume
or,
           ρ = m/V
where,
           ρ is density, m is mass and V is volume.
  • When numerator (mass) is much larger than denominator (volume) in density formula, that shows the given substance has higher density, but when denominator (volume) is much larger than the numerator (mass), that shows the given substance has lower density.

SI Unit of Density

                             SI Unit of Density is Kg/m3 or g/cm3

Density Calculator

    Density is calculated by dividing mass by volume. Density is measured as units of mass/volume, often g/cm3, g/Kg3 or g/mL. Just enter value of mass and volume to get density.

Instruments used to measure Density

Weighing balance, Scale, Hydrometer and Thermometer are some instruments used to measure the density of solids & liquids.
Measurement

How to Measure Density of a Solid

Just watch below video to learn how to measure density of a solid.
    


Hydrometer to measure Density
Hydrometer


Hydrometer dip in mineral oil and engine oil to measure the Density of these samples
Hydrometer dip in mineral oil and engine oil to measure the Density of these samples


Density Chart

Material
Density (Kg/m3)
Remark
Air
1.2
At sea level
Milk
1027 to 1033
At 20 oC
Honey
1420
At 20 oC
Coconut Oil
925
At 15 oC
Cotton Seed Oil
926
At 16 oC
Olive Oil
918
At 15 oC
Sunflower Oil
919
At 20 oC
Rice Bran Oil
918
At 20 oC
Groundnut Oil
913
At 20 oC
Liquid Hydrogen
70
At about -255 oC
Ice
916.7
At 0 oC
Fresh Water
1000
At 4 oC
Plastics
1175
Approx for PVC
Glycerol
1261
Also called Glycerine or Glycerin
Aluminium
2700
Chief ore of Aluminium is Bauxite
Diamond
3500
Precious stone
Zinc
7000
Zinc is found in cells throughout the body.
Iron
7870
Used since ancient times
Cobalt
8900
Found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form
Nickel
8900
Silvery-white lustrous metal
copper
8940
Very high thermal and electrical conductivity
Silver
10500
Highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity
Lead
11340
Soft, malleable, and heavy metal
Mercury
13546
Only metallic element that is liquid at room temperature
Uranium
18800
weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable
Iridium
22420
Densest naturally occurring element
Osmium
22570
Densest naturally occurring element

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