Chemistry Podcast

Sunday, 14 December 2014

Bent Rule

Definition of Bent Rule
As per bent Rule the more electronegative constituent prefer the hybrid orbitals having less s character & the more electropositive constituent prefer the hybrid orbitals having more s  character, is bent Rule.

Thursday, 4 December 2014

what is molarity ?

What is molarity? 

Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in litre.
Where mole is weight in gram devided by molecular weight.
Molarity is chemistry terminology.

Molarity (M) :- 

                                No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in litre.
    M = strength in gram per litre / Molar mass of the solute
Unit =>   M = Moles/L

Molarity Chemistry Infographics
What is Molarity


Tuesday, 2 December 2014


Debye Huckel Theory

This theory is based on 3 assumptions that how the ions act in the solution

1. in the solution electrolytes completely dissossiate into ions

2. electrolyte solution are very dilute of order of 0.01M

3. each ion surrounded by ion of the opposite charge on the average.

Friday, 7 November 2014

Project on Barcode

Project on Barcode

Project on Barcode

What is Barcode ?

Barcode is machine readable representation of information related to product to which it is attached.

Types of Barcode ?

Barcodes are of two types i.e. 1D and 2D

1.       One dimensional (1D) Barcode : 

                                                            It is also
known as linear barcode. Originally it is prepared by changing width and
space of parallel lines

Codabar, code 25, Code 11, Code 39, Code 93, Code 128, CPC Binary, DUN
14, EAN 2, EAN 5, EAN 8, EAN 13, Facing Identification Mark, GS1-128,
Intelligent Mail Barcode, ITF 14, JAN, KarTrak ACI, Latent image
barcode, MSI, Pharmacode, PLANET, Plessey, PostBar, POSTNET, Telepen

2.       Two dimensional (2D) Barcode : 

                                                            2D code is a
matrix code to represent information in two dimension. It
represent more information as compared to One dimensional (1D) Barcode.

Aztec Code, Data Matrix, EZcode, High capacity color barcode, MaxiCode,
NexCode, PDF417, Qode, QR code, ShotCode, SPARQCode etc.


What is Symbologies ?

Mapping between barcode and messages is known as symbology.

1D Symbologies :

                            It is also known as linear symbologies  which is read by laser.

2D Symbologies :

                           It is known as 2D Symbologies is read by digital camera.


What is Scanner or Barcode reader ?

or Barcode readers have the ability to decode barcodes to obtain
information from it. Like RS-232, Keyboard Interface Scanners, USB
Scanners and now days many mobile phone come with barcode scanner by
utilizing mobile camera and many apps support barcode scanning like
Google goggles,  mbarcode etc


Barcode Verifier Standards

For 1D or linear :

                              ISO/IEC 15416

For 2D :

                ISO/IEC 15426-2


What is Pharmacode ?

Pharmacode is also called as Pharmaceutical Binary Code. It is used in Pharma industry to control packing system.

Encoding of Pharmacode

contain a single value from 3 to 131070. Pharmacode can be read from
left to right or right to left. Narrow bar in pharmacode shows 2n and wide bar show 2*2n where n is bar position starting from 0 at right position.


What is Data Matrix ?

is two dimensional matrix barcode that contain black & white
modules or cells  arranged in square or rectangular pattern. Data Matrix
store text as well as numeric data. Some error correction codes are
used in data matrix to increase its reliability. Data Matrix have the
ability to store upto 2335 alpha-numeric characters.


What is QR Code ?

is Quick Response Code. QR Code become more popular due to its fast
readability and more storage capacity as compared to the standard UPC (
Universal Product Code ) barcodes.


What is GTIN ?

is Global Trade Item Number developed by GS1 for trade items. GTIN
number may be encoded in EAN 8, EAN 13, UPC A, UPC E and other barcodes
in GS1 system.
UPC = Universal Product Code
EAN = now  International Article Number originally European Article Number


What is ITF Barcode ?

Barcode is Interleaved Two of Five ( Interleaved 2 of 5 ) barcode
system. ITF is continuous two width barcode symbology for encoding

Monday, 12 May 2014

12 Class Chapter 15- Polymers

Polymer & Polymerization

Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene.
Addition Polymer: Polythene, Neoprene.

Polymer Classification

Polymer Classification on the basis of Source:

1.    Natural Polymer: Protein, Cellulose, Rubber.
2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer: Cellulose Derivatives as cellulose acetate (Rayon), Cellulose Nitrate.
3.    Synthetic Polymer: Plastic (Polyethene), Synthetic Fibers ( Nylon 6-6), Buna-S.

Polymer Classification on the basis of Structure:

1.    Linear Polymer: High Density Polythene, Polyvinyl Chloride.
2.    Branched Chain Polymer: Low Density Polythene.
3.     Cross Linked or Network Polymer: Bakelite, Melamine.

Polymer Classification on the basis of Molecular Forces:

1.    Elastomers: Weak intermolecular forces. eg.- Natural Rubber, Synthetic Rubber.
2.    Fibers: Strong intermolecular forces. eg.- Polyamides (Nylon6-6), Polyesters (Terylene).
3.    Thermoplastic: Polythene, Polystyrene.
4.    Thermosetting: Bakelite, Urea Formaldehyde Resins.

Lower Density Polyethene  (L.D.P.) : prepared at 1000-2000 atm pressure, 350-570 Kelvin Temperature and O2 peroxide inhibitor.

Higher Density Polyethene  (H.D.P.) : prepared at 6-7 atm pressure, 333-343 Kelvin Temperature and Zieglar Natta Catalyst.

Monomer Formula
1.    Teflon
Oil seals, Gasket
2.    Polyacrylonitrile

Commercial Fibers
3.    Terylene or Decron
Ethylene Glycol
Teryphthalic Acid

Commercial Fibers
4.    Nylon 6,6


5.    Nylon 6
Adipic Acid


Making Sheets, bristles of brushes, textile industry, tyre cords, fabrics, ropes etc.
6.    Phenol Formaldehyde Polymer
i.                   Novolac
Phenol + Formaldehyde
Used in paints
ii.                 Bakelite
Phenol + Formaldehyde

Comb, Electric switches
7.    Malamine Formaldehyde Polymer
Malamine + Formaldehyde

Unbreakable crockery
8.    Buna S
1,3-Butadiene + Styrene

Auto tyres, cables insulation, floor tiles


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