## Sunday, 14 December 2014

### Bent Rule

Definition of Bent Rule
As per bent Rule the more electronegative constituent prefer the hybrid orbitals having less s character & the more electropositive constituent prefer the hybrid orbitals having more s  character, is bent Rule.
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## What is molarity?

Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in litre.
Where mole is weight in gram devided by molecular weight.
Molarity is chemistry terminology.

### Molarity (M) :-

No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in litre.
M = strength in gram per litre / Molar mass of the solute
Unit =>   M = Moles/L

 What is Molarity

## Debye Huckel Theory

This theory is based on 3 assumptions that how the ions act in the solution

1. in the solution electrolytes completely dissossiate into ions

2. electrolyte solution are very dilute of order of 0.01M

3. each ion surrounded by ion of the opposite charge on the average.

## What is Barcode ?

Barcode is machine readable representation of information related to product to which it is attached.

## Types of Barcode ?

Barcodes are of two types i.e. 1D and 2D

### 1.One dimensional (1D) Barcode :

It is also
known as linear barcode. Originally it is prepared by changing width and
space of parallel lines

Ex.
Codabar, code 25, Code 11, Code 39, Code 93, Code 128, CPC Binary, DUN
14, EAN 2, EAN 5, EAN 8, EAN 13, Facing Identification Mark, GS1-128,
Intelligent Mail Barcode, ITF 14, JAN, KarTrak ACI, Latent image
barcode, MSI, Pharmacode, PLANET, Plessey, PostBar, POSTNET, Telepen
etc.

### 2.Two dimensional (2D) Barcode :

2D code is a
matrix code to represent information in two dimension. It

Ex.
Aztec Code, Data Matrix, EZcode, High capacity color barcode, MaxiCode,
NexCode, PDF417, Qode, QR code, ShotCode, SPARQCode etc.

## What is Symbologies ?

Mapping between barcode and messages is known as symbology.

#### 1D Symbologies :

It is also known as linear symbologies  which is read by laser.

#### 2D Symbologies :

It is known as 2D Symbologies is read by digital camera.

## What is Scanner or Barcode reader ?

Scanner
or Barcode readers have the ability to decode barcodes to obtain
information from it. Like RS-232, Keyboard Interface Scanners, USB
Scanners and now days many mobile phone come with barcode scanner by
utilizing mobile camera and many apps support barcode scanning like

### Barcode Verifier Standards

#### For 1D or linear :

ISO/IEC 15416

#### For 2D :

ISO/IEC 15426-2

## What is Pharmacode ?

Pharmacode is also called as Pharmaceutical Binary Code. It is used in Pharma industry to control packing system.

### Encoding of Pharmacode

Pharmacode
contain a single value from 3 to 131070. Pharmacode can be read from
left to right or right to left. Narrow bar in pharmacode shows 2n and wide bar show 2*2n where n is bar position starting from 0 at right position.

## What is Data Matrix ?

It
is two dimensional matrix barcode that contain black & white
modules or cells  arranged in square or rectangular pattern. Data Matrix
store text as well as numeric data. Some error correction codes are
used in data matrix to increase its reliability. Data Matrix have the
ability to store upto 2335 alpha-numeric characters.

## What is QR Code ?

It
is Quick Response Code. QR Code become more popular due to its fast
readability and more storage capacity as compared to the standard UPC (
Universal Product Code ) barcodes.

## What is GTIN ?

It
is Global Trade Item Number developed by GS1 for trade items. GTIN
number may be encoded in EAN 8, EAN 13, UPC A, UPC E and other barcodes
in GS1 system.
UPC = Universal Product Code
EAN = now  International Article Number originally European Article Number

## What is ITF Barcode ?

ITF
Barcode is Interleaved Two of Five ( Interleaved 2 of 5 ) barcode
system. ITF is continuous two width barcode symbology for encoding
digits.

## Polymer & Polymerization

Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene.

### Polymer Classification

#### Polymer Classification on the basis of Source:

1.    Natural Polymer: Protein, Cellulose, Rubber.
2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer: Cellulose Derivatives as cellulose acetate (Rayon), Cellulose Nitrate.
3.    Synthetic Polymer: Plastic (Polyethene), Synthetic Fibers ( Nylon 6-6), Buna-S.

#### Polymer Classification on the basis of Structure:

1.    Linear Polymer: High Density Polythene, Polyvinyl Chloride.
2.    Branched Chain Polymer: Low Density Polythene.
3.     Cross Linked or Network Polymer: Bakelite, Melamine.

#### Polymer Classification on the basis of Molecular Forces:

1.    Elastomers: Weak intermolecular forces. eg.- Natural Rubber, Synthetic Rubber.
2.    Fibers: Strong intermolecular forces. eg.- Polyamides (Nylon6-6), Polyesters (Terylene).
3.    Thermoplastic: Polythene, Polystyrene.
4.    Thermosetting: Bakelite, Urea Formaldehyde Resins.

Lower Density Polyethene  (L.D.P.) : prepared at 1000-2000 atm pressure, 350-570 Kelvin Temperature and O2 peroxide inhibitor.

Higher Density Polyethene  (H.D.P.) : prepared at 6-7 atm pressure, 333-343 Kelvin Temperature and Zieglar Natta Catalyst.

 Polymers Monomers Monomer Formula Use 1.    Teflon Tetrafluroethene CF2=CF2 Oil seals, Gasket 2.    Polyacrylonitrile Acrylonitrile Commercial Fibers 3.    Terylene or Decron Ethylene Glycol Teryphthalic Acid HOCH2-CH2OH Commercial Fibers 4.    Nylon 6,6 And 5.    Nylon 6 Hexamethylene-diamine Adipic Acid Caprolactum NH2(CH2)6NH2 HOOC(CH2)4COOH Making Sheets, bristles of brushes, textile industry, tyre cords, fabrics, ropes etc. 6.    Phenol Formaldehyde Polymer i.                   Novolac Phenol + Formaldehyde HCHO Used in paints ii.                 Bakelite Phenol + Formaldehyde HCHO Comb, Electric switches 7.    Malamine Formaldehyde Polymer Malamine + Formaldehyde HCHO Unbreakable crockery 8.    Buna S 1,3-Butadiene + Styrene CH2=CH-CH=CH2 Auto tyres, cables insulation, floor tiles

## NOTE:

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