Chemistry Podcast

Tuesday, 2 April 2019

Sandhu Value Investing

Sandhu Value Investing


Sandhu Value Investing is our another initiative to teach people about financial education and value investing. We will learn on this platform about financial markets, value investing, share market or stock market. We will also learn about fundamental and technical analysis.
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Sunday, 17 March 2019

11 Scientists and their Brilliant Inventions

11 Scientists and their Brilliant Inventions


11 Scientists and their Brilliant Inventions


Above video is video of 11 Scientists and their Brilliant Inventions. You can also see more videos on famous scientists and their inventions at our YouTube channel Chemistry Notes Info .

List of famous scientists and their inventions



11 scientists and their brilliant inventions

Archimedes
The Archimedes’ Screw
Robert Hooke
discovered plant cells
Law of elasticity
Benjamin Franklin
Law of Conservation of Electric Charge
Invented bifocal spectacles
Also invented the Franklin stove
And invented the lightning rod
Alessandro Volta
First person to isolate methane gas
Invented the electric battery
Louis Pasteur
Discovered that some molecules have mirror images
Pasteur invented the process of pasteurization
Lord Kelvin
Gives the first two laws of thermodynamics
Invented devising equipment
William Crookes
Discovered and named the element Thallium
Invented electrical discharge tube
Wilhelm Röntgen
Discovered X-rays
Invented X-ray photography
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Discovered neuron doctrine
Pierre Curie
Discovered radioactivity
Discovered piezoelectricity
Invented the piezoelectric quartz electrometer
Henry Moseley
Discovered the true basis of the periodic table
Invented the atomic battery

Famous Scientists and Their Inventions

below is video on famous scientists and their inventions

Famous Scientists

Top 10 famous Indian scientists and their inventions

Below is video on Top 10 famous Indian scientists and their inventions.

Indian Scientists

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Chemistry Notes Info www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com

Books on Famous Scientists

  1. Children’s Encyclopedia – This is a great book for children. This book contain info about scientists, their inventions and discoveries. With this book you can familiarize your children with important inventions and discoveries. You can purchase this book from Amazon.
  2. Great Inventors and Their Inventions – This book contains twelve stories of great inventions, with a concluding chapter on famous inventors of today. It an awesome book about inventors and their inventions.


Tuesday, 12 March 2019

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Abbreviations

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Abbreviations




Abbreviations used in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

As we know pharmaceutical manufacturing products i.e. medicines, life saving drugs have very high importance in our life. Today we learn about various abbreviations used in pharmaceutical manufacturing process steps or simply in pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. These short forms are used in every pharmaceutical manufacturing companies like pharmaceutical industry in USA, pharmaceutical industry in India, pharmaceutical industry in France, pharmaceutical industry in Canada, pharmaceutical industry in China, pharmaceutical industry in Japan etc. These short forms are also asked in various pharma interviews. So learn these Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Abbreviations and also share with your science friends working in pharma companies or studying pharmacy.
GMP : Good Manufacturing Practices
cGMP : Current Good Manufacturing Practices
PVP : Process Validation Protocol
PVR : Process Validation Report
CVP : Cleaning Validation Protocol
CVR : Cleaning Validation Report
GDP : Good Documentation Practices
MQRM : Monthly Quality Review Meeting
QRM : Quality Risk Management
UCL : Upper control Limit
LCL : Lower control Limit
IPQA : In process Quality Assurance
LLC : Live line clearance
API: Active pharmaceutical ingredient
APQR: Annual product Quality review
AQL: Acceptable quality level
ASM: Active Substance Manufacturer
ASMF: Active Substance Master File
AST: Accelerated stability testing
CRT : Controlled Room Temperature
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
BA: Bioavailability
BE : Bioequivalence
BET: Bacterial Endotoxin Test
BMR: Batch Manufacturing Record
BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand
BOM: Bill of Materials
BOPP: Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene
BP: British Pharmacopoeia
BPR: Batch Packaging Record
BSE: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)
CAPA: Corrective and preventive action
FMEA : Failure mode & Effect Analysis
RCA : Root cause Analysis
CBE: Changes being effected
CBER: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (FDA)
CCIT: Container closure integrity test
CDER: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (FDA)
CDSCO: Central drug standard control organization (India)
CEP:Certification of suitability of European Pharmacopoeia monograph
GC : Gas Chromatography
HSA: Health Sciences Authority, Singapore
ANVISA: Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Health Surveillance Agency Brazil
TGA: Therapeutics goods administration (Australia)
USFDA: United states foods and drugs administration
FDA: Food and Drug Administration, United States
WHO: World Health Organisation
JP: Japanese Pharmacopoeia
MHRA: Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK)
MEDSAFE: Medicines & medicinal devices safety authority (New zealand)
CQA: Critical Quality Attribute
MACO : Maximum allowable Carry over
ADE: Adverse drug event
PDE : Permitted Daily Dosage Exposure
ACU: Air Cooling Unit
AHU: Air Handling Unit
ANDA: Abbreviated new drug application
NDA : New drug application
EDMF: European drug master file
EDQM: European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
EH&S: Environmental health and safety
EIR: Establishment inspection report (FDA)
EMEA: European Medicines Agency
EP: European Pharmacopoeia
ETP: Effluent Treatment Plant
EU: Endotoxin unit
EU: European Union
URS: User Requirement Specification
FAT: Factory Acceptance Testing
SAT : Site Acceptance Test
IQ : Installation Qualification
DQ : Design Qualification
OQ : Operational Qualification
PQ: Performance Qualification
FBD: Fluid-bed dryer
FBP: Fluid-bed Processor
RMG : Rapid mixer Granulator
FDC: Fixed Dose Combination
FEFO: First expiry first out
RA: Regulatory Affairs
FIFO: First in first out
FMEA: Failure modes and effect analysis
FOI: Freedom of information
GAMP: Good automated manufacturing practice
GC: Gas Chromatography
GCLP: Good clinical laboratory practice
GCP: Good clinical practice
GDP: Good distribution practice
GEP: Good engineering practice
DOP: Dioctyl Phthalate
GIT: Gastrointestinal Tract
GLP: Good laboratory practice
GMO: Genetically modified organism
GMP: Good manufacturing practice
GPT: Growth Promotion Test
GRAS/E: Generally recognized as safe and effective
GRP: Good review practice
HACCP: Hazard analysis critical control point
HDPE: High Density Polyethylene
HEPA: High efficiency particulate air (filter)
HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography
DHS : Dry heat sterilization
HVAC: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
ICH: International Conference on Harmonisation
IH: In house
IM: Intramuscular
IND: Investigational new drug
INDA: Investigational new drug application
IP: Indian Pharmacopeia
IPA: Isopropyl Alcohol
IPS: In process control
IQ: Installation qualification
IR: Immediate release
ISO: International Organization for Standardization
ISPE: International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering
IV: Intravenous
KOS: Knowledge organization system
LAF: Laminar air flow
LAL: Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate
LD: Lethal dose
LD50: Lethal dose where 50% of the animal population die
LDPE: Low Density Polyethylene
LIMS: Laboratory Information Management System
LIR: Laboratory Investigation Report
LOD: Loss on drying
LOD: Limit of detection
LOQ: Limit of quantification
LR: Laboratory Reagent
LVPs: Large Volume Parenterals
MA: Marketing Authorisation
MAA: Marketing Authorisation Application
MAC: Maximum Allowable Carryover
MCC: Medicines control council (South Africa)
MDD: Maximum daily dose
MFR: Master Formula Record
WL: Warning letter
MOA: Method Of Analysis
MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheets
NCE: New chemical entity
NDA: New Drug Application
NF: National Formulary
NIR: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy
NON: Notice of non-compliance (Canada)
ODI: Orally Disintegrating Tablet
OQ: Operation Qualification
OSD: Oral Solid Dosage
OSHA: Occupational Safety And Health Administration
OTC: Over-the-counter
OOS: Out of specification
OOT: Out of trend
PAC: Post-approval changes
PAO: Poly alpha olefin
PAT: Process Analytical technology
PET: Preservative efficacy test
PLC: Programmable Logical Control
PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride
PVDC: Polyvinylidene Chloride
PW: Purified Water
QBD : Quality by design
QM: Quality Manual
QMS: Quality Management System
RH: Relative humidity
RLAF: Reverse laminar air flow
RLD: Reference listed drug
RM: Raw material
RM: Packing material
FGS: Finished Goods Store
BSR: Bounded store Room
RO: Reverse Osmosis
RS: Related Substance
SAT: Site Acceptance Testing
SIP: Sterilization in place
SIP: Steam in place
SLS: Sodium Lauryl Sulphate
SMF: Site master file
SOP: Standard operating procedure
SPE: Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering
SUPAC: Scale-up and post approval changes
SVP: Small Volume Parenteral
TDS: Total Dissolved Solids
TOC: Total organic carbon
TSE: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
USP: United States Pharmacopoeia
USP-NF: United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary
API: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
VMP: Validation Master Plan
WFI: Water for injection
TRF : Test Request Form
CFR: Code of Federal Regulations
CFU: Colony Forming Unit
cGMP: Current Good Manufacturing Practices
CIP: Clean in place
COA: Certificate of analysis
MOA: Method of analysis
COS: Certificate of suitability
COPP: Certificate of Pharmaceutical Products
CPP: Critical Process Parameter
DMF: Drug master file
PMPS: Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Process Steps
MFP: Media Filling Process
SFG: Semi Finished Goods
PM: Preventive Maintenance
SFG: Semi Finished Goods
FG: Finished Goods
NPI: New Product Introduction
PDL: Packaging Development Laboratory

Do you know How medicines are manufactured ?

In ancient times people use plants or animals matter to cure some sort of ailment or diseases by using home remedies. But now day’s medicine manufacturing is performed by chemical processing. Learn more about How medicines are manufactured at given below article
Follow us on Facebook to get more updates. Share this post and also share your valuable comments in comment section below. 

Abbreviations used in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
Books to Learn Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
  1. Global Compliance to Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practice
  2. Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals: Gmp in Practice
  3. Rules and Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Distributors (Orange Guide) 2017
  

Thursday, 21 February 2019

Chemistry Videos

Chemistry Videos

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Some Basic Concept of Chemistry

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Thursday, 7 February 2019

Stoichiometry MCQs Part24

Chemistry Quiz of Stoichiometry MCQs

 Download Chemistry Quiz App
Calculation based on the chemical equations are known as the stoichiometry and this Chemistry Quiz contains Stoichiometry MCQs.

MCQ-1.  If a compound containing 50 % of element A having atomic weight 10 and 50 % of element B having atomic weight 20 then, its simplest formula is :

  AB
  A2B
  AB3
  A2B3


MCQ-2.  Element A having atomic weight 75 and element B having atomic weight 16 combine together to give a compound. This compound have 75.8% of A then, the formula of the compound is :

  AB
  A2B
  A2B2
  A2B3


MCQ-3.  The equivalent weight of calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 is ___________. (Given Molecular Weight = 310) :

  310
  310/2
  310/3
  310/6


MCQ-4.  The percentage of oxygen in NaOH is :

  0.01
  0.08
  0.16
  0.4


MCQ-5.  Number of moles of KCl in 1000ml of 3 molar solution is :

  1
  2
  3
  4


MCQ-6.  How much quicklime can be obtained from the 25 gram of CaCO3 :

  14
  28
  42
  56


MCQ-7.  0.528 gram of a monocarboxylic acid requires 6meq of a base for the neutralization. Sodium salt of this acid on heating with soda lime will give :

  Ethane
  Propane
  Butane
  Pentane


MCQ-8.  When 10 gram of 90% pure lime stone is heated completely, the volume in litres of carbon dioxide librated at STP is :

  2.016
  2.24
  20.16
  22.4


MCQ-9.  If the solubility of the Salt in water is 40 at 30 degree celcius. How much amount of water is required to dissolve 120 gram salt at the same temperature: :

  200 gram
  4 litre
  300 gram
  8 litre


MCQ-10.  When 26 c.c. of CO2 is passed over the red hot coke, then volume of CO evolved is :

  10 c.c.
  15 c.c.
  32 c.c.
  None of these


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