100 basic chemistry terminology

 100 Basic Chemistry Terminology

Dear Friends, today we will learn 100 basic chemistry terminology in easy-to-understand language. This chemical glossary or chemistry terminology list contains basic terms of chemistry, which help you allot during your study and improve your science understanding. 

1. Atom: The tiny building block of matter.

2. Element: A pure substance made of only one type of atom.

3. Molecule: A group of atoms held together by chemical bonds.

4. Compound: A substance made of two or more different elements chemically combined.

5. Proton: A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.

6. Neutron: A neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom.

7. Electron: A negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.

8. Nucleus: The central core of an atom where protons and neutrons are located.

9. Periodic Table: A chart that organizes elements based on their properties.

10. Atomic Number: The number of protons in an atom's nucleus.

11. Atomic Mass: The total mass of an atom, including protons, neutrons, and electrons.

12. Isotope: Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

13. Ion: An atom with a positive or negative charge due to the loss or gain of electrons.

14. Chemical Bond: The force that holds atoms together in compounds.

15. Covalent Bond: A bond formed when atoms share electrons.

16. Ionic Bond: A bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.

17. Valence Electrons: Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom.

18. Mixture: A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded.

19. Solution: A homogeneous mixture where one substance dissolves in another.

20. Solvent: The substance in a solution that does the dissolving.

21. Solute: The substance in a solution that gets dissolved.

basic chemistry terminology

22. Concentration: The amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.

23. Chemical Reaction: A process where substances change into new substances.

24. Reactant: A substance that participates in a chemical reaction.

25. Product: A substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.

26. Catalyst: A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed.

27. Chemical Equation: A representation of a chemical reaction using symbols and formulas.

28. Acid: A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.

29. Base: A substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution.

30. pH Scale: A scale used to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution.

31. pH: A measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

32. Salt: A compound formed by the reaction between an acid and a base.

33. Oxidation: A chemical reaction where a substance loses electrons.

34. Reduction: A chemical reaction where a substance gain electrons.

35. Combustion: A rapid chemical reaction between a fuel and oxygen, producing heat and light.

36. Hydrocarbon: A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms.

37. Polymer: A large molecule made up of repeating smaller units.

38. Monomer: The basic building block of a polymer.

39. Chemical Formula: A shorthand notation that represents the composition of a compound.

40. Molecular Formula: A chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms in a molecule.

41. Empirical Formula: A chemical formula that shows the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms in a compound.

42. Avogadro's Number: The number of atoms or molecules in one mole (6.022 x 10^23).

43. Stoichiometry: The study of the quantitative relationships in chemical reactions.

44. Endothermic: A reaction that absorbs heat from its surroundings.

45. Exothermic: A reaction that releases heat to its surroundings.

46. LigandsThe molecules or ions which are coordinated to the central atom or ion in the coordination compound are called ligands.

47. Rate of Reaction: The speed at which a chemical reaction occurs.

48. Synthesis Reaction: A reaction where two or more substances combine to form a more complex product.

49. Decomposition Reaction: A reaction where a compound breaks down into simpler substances.

50. Single Replacement Reaction: A reaction where one element replaces another in a compound.

51. Double Replacement Reaction: A reaction where the positive and negative ions in two compounds switch places.

52. Precipitate: A solid formed in a double replacement reaction.

53. Chemical Equilibrium: A state in which the forward and reverse reactions in a system occur at the same rate.

54. Kinetic Energy: The energy of motion of particles in a substance.

55. Potential Energy: The stored energy in an object.

56. Exothermic Reaction: A chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of heat.

57. Endothermic Reaction: A chemical reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings.

58. Activation Energy: The minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction.

59. Law of Conservation of Mass: Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.

60. Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.

61. Sublimation: The change of a substance directly from a solid to a gas.

62. Deposition: The change of a substance directly from a gas to a solid.

63. Condensation: The change of a gas into a liquid.

64. Evaporation: The change of a liquid into a gas.

65. Melting: The change of a solid into a liquid.

66. Freezing: The change of a liquid into a solid.

67. Boiling Point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.

68. Melting Point: The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

69. Density: The mass per unit volume of a substance.

70. Buoyancy: The upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an object.

71. Viscosity: The resistance of a liquid to flow.

72. Solubility: The ability of a substance to dissolve in a solvent.

73. Saturation: When a solution can no longer dissolve more solute at a given temperature.

74. Supersaturation: A solution that contains more solute than it should be able to dissolve.

75. Insoluble: A substance that does not dissolve in a particular solvent.

76. Filtration: A method for separating solid particles from a liquid by using a porous barrier.

77. Distillation: A process for separating liquids based on differences in their boiling points.

78. Chromatography: A technique used to separate and analyze the components of a mixture.

79. Acid Rain: Rainfall with a low pH due to the presence of pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

80. Greenhouse Effect: The trapping of heat in Earth's atmosphere by greenhouse gases.

81. Oxidation State: The charge of an atom in a compound, indicating its ability to gain or lose electrons.

82. Radioactive Decay: The spontaneous breakdown of unstable atomic nuclei, releasing radiation.

83. Isomer: Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures or arrangements.

84. Electrolyte: A substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water.

85. Redox Reaction: A chemical reaction that involves the transfer of electrons.

86. Half-Life: The time it takes for half of a radioactive substance to decay.

87. Chemical Kinetics: The study of reaction rates and mechanisms.

88. Thermodynamics: The study of the relationships between energy, heat, work, and matter.

89. Solvation: The process of surrounding solute particles with solvent molecules.

90. Neutralization: A reaction between an acid and a base to produce salt and water.

91. Inhibitor: A substance that slows down or inhibits a chemical reaction.

92. Coordination ChemistryThe branch of chemistry which deals with the study of coordination compounds or complex compound is known as coordination chemistry.

93. Alloy: A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.

94. pH Indicator: A substance that changes colour in response to changes in pH.

95. Quantum Mechanics: The branch of physics that deals with the behaviour of particles at the atomic and subatomic level.

96. Bond Energy: The amount of energy required to break a chemical bond.

97. Entropy: A measure of the disorder or randomness of a system.

98. Chemical Equilibrium: A state in which the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant over time.

99. Heat Capacity: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by a certain amount.

100. Vaporization: The change of a liquid to a gas at a temperature below its boiling point.


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